Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The Spatial and Temporal Construction of Confidence in the Visual Scene

By Martin Graziano and Mariano Sigman


Human subjects can report many items of a cluttered field a few hundred milliseconds after stimulus presentation. This memory decays rapidly and after a second only 3 or 4 items can be stored in working memory. Here we compared the dynamics of objective performance with a measure of subjective report and we observed that 1) Objective performance beyond explicit subjective reports (blindsight) was significantly more pronounced within a short temporal interval and within specific locations of the visual field which were robust across sessions 2) High confidence errors (false beliefs) were largely confined to a small spatial window neighboring the cue. The size of this window did not change in time 3) Subjective confidence showed a moderate but consistent decrease with time, independent of all other experimental factors. Our study allowed us to asses quantitatively the temporal and spatial access to an objective response and to subjective reports

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: Public Library of Science
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

Suggested articles


  1. (1989). A cognitive theory of consciousness. Cambridge:
  2. (1994). A study of masked form priming in picture and word naming.
  3. (1994). Attention: the mechanisms of consciousness.
  4. (2000). Attentional biases in geometric form perception.
  5. (2007). Attentional blinks as errors in temporal binding.
  6. (1996). Attentional resolution and the locus of visual awareness.
  7. (2004). Bayesian integration in sensorimotor learning.
  8. (1998). Classical conditioning and brain systems: the role of awareness.
  9. (1967). Cognitive Psychology.
  10. (1998). Competition between past and present. Assessment and interpretation of verbal perseverations.
  11. (2001). Confidence and accuracy of nearthreshold discrimination responses.
  12. (2001). Conflict Monitoring and Cognitive Control.
  13. (2007). Consciousness, accessibility, and the mesh between psychology and neuroscience.
  14. (2007). Cowey A
  15. (2008). Crowding alters the spatial distribution of attention modulation in human primary visual cortex.
  16. (1980). Evidence for feature perturbations.
  17. (2007). Fear perception: can objective and subjective awareness measures be dissociated?
  18. (1988). From Neuropsychology to Mental Structure. Cambridge:
  19. (1981). Identification, localization, and ‘‘iconic memory’’: an evaluation of the bar-probe task.
  20. (1997). If it’s not there, where is it? Locating illusory conjunctions.
  21. (1998). Inattentional Blindness.
  22. (2005). Inhibition and decay of motor and nonmotor priming.
  23. (2006). Introspection and Science.
  24. (2004). Is consciousness a gradual phenomenon? Evidence for an all-or-none bifurcation during the attentional blink.
  25. (2003). Large capacity storage of integrated objects before change blindness.
  26. (2008). Limits on introspection: Distorted subjective time during the dual-task bottleneck. Psychological Science:
  27. (1997). Location errors in partial-report barprobe experiments: in search of the origin of cue-alignment problems.
  28. (1973). Loss of spatial and identity information following a tachistoscopic exposure.
  29. (1995). On the relation between type of arrays and type of errors in partial-report bar-probes studies.
  30. (1991). Partial report: iconic store or two buffers?
  31. (2001). Perception without awareness: perspectives from cognitive psychology.
  32. (1969). Relations between the sensory register and short-term storage in tachistoscopic recognition.
  33. (2006). Relative blindsight in normal observers and the neural correlate of visual consciousness.
  34. (1987). Repetition blindness: type recognition without token individuation.
  35. (2002). Shifts in perceived position of flashed stimuli by illusory object motion.
  36. (1995). Short-term implicit memory for words and nonwords.
  37. (2008). Spatial attention increases performance but not subjective confidence in a discrimination task.
  38. (1992). Temporary suppression of visual processing in an RSVP task: an attentional blink?
  39. (2008). The dynamics of sensory buffers: Geometric, spatial, and experience-dependent shaping of iconic memory.
  40. (1960). The Information Available in brief Visual Presentations.
  41. (2004). The Quest for Consciousness: a Neurobiological Approach. California: Roberts and
  42. (2001). The spatial resolution of visual attention.
  43. (1996). Three cognitive markers of unconscious semantic activation.
  44. (1997). To see or not to see: the need for attention to perceive changes in scenes.
  45. (2001). Towards a cognitive neuroscience of consciousness: basic evidence and a workspace framework.
  46. (2008). Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain.
  47. (2006). Visual clutter causes high-magnitude errors.
  48. (1991). Visual detectability gradients: effect of illiteracy.
  49. (1952). Word recognition as a function of retinal locus.
  50. (2003). Working memory and fear conditioning.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.