Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Robust Food Anticipatory Activity in BMAL1-Deficient Mice

By Julie S. Pendergast, Wataru Nakamura, Rio C. Friday, Fumiyuki Hatanaka, Toru Takumi and Shin Yamazaki

Abstract

Food availability is a potent environmental cue that directs circadian locomotor activity in rodents. Even though nocturnal rodents prefer to forage at night, daytime food anticipatory activity (FAA) is observed prior to short meals presented at a scheduled time of day. Under this restricted feeding regimen, rodents exhibit two distinct bouts of activity, a nocturnal activity rhythm that is entrained to the light-dark cycle and controlled by the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and a daytime bout of activity that is phase-locked to mealtime. FAA also occurs during food deprivation, suggesting that a food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) keeps time in the absence of scheduled feeding. Previous studies have demonstrated that the FEO is anatomically distinct from the SCN and that FAA is observed in mice lacking some circadian genes essential for timekeeping in the SCN. In the current study, we optimized the conditions for examining FAA during restricted feeding and food deprivation in mice lacking functional BMAL1, which is critical for circadian rhythm generation in the SCN. We found that BMAL1-deficient mice displayed FAA during restricted feeding in 12hr light:12hr dark (12L:12D) and 18L:6D lighting cycles, but distinct activity during food deprivation was observed only in 18L:6D. While BMAL1-deficient mice also exhibited robust FAA during restricted feeding in constant darkness, mice were hyperactive during food deprivation so it was not clear that FAA consistently occurred at the time of previously scheduled food availability. Taken together, our findings suggest that optimization of experimental conditions such as photoperiod may be necessary to visualize FAA in genetically modified mice. Furthermore, the expression of FAA may be possible without a circadian oscillator that depends on BMAL1

Topics: Research Article
Publisher: Public Library of Science
OAI identifier: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:2654093
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles

    Citations

    1. (2005). A noncanonical E-box enhancer drives mouse Period2 circadian oscillations in vivo.
    2. (2005). Altered food-anticipatory activity rhythm in Cryptochrome-deficient mice.
    3. (2003). Altered patterns of sleep and behavioral adaptability in NPAS2-deficient mice.
    4. (1927). Animal behavior and internal drives.
    5. (1997). Anticipation and entrainment to feeding time in intact and SCN-ablated C57BL/6j mice.
    6. (1979). Anticipation of 24-hr feeding schedules in rats with lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.
    7. (1994). Circadian food-anticipatory activity: formal models and physiological mechanisms.
    8. (2006). Circadian physiology. 2nd ed. Boca Raton:
    9. (1996). Circadian rhythms in cultured mammalian retina.
    10. (1972). Circadian rhythms in drinking behavior and locomotor activity of rats are eliminated by hypothalamic lesions.
    11. (2007). CLOCK and NPAS2 have overlapping roles in the suprachiasmatic circadian clock.
    12. (2008). Comment on ‘‘Differential rescue of light- and food-entrainable circadian rhythms’’. Science 322: 675; author reply 675.
    13. (2008). Differential rescue of light- and foodentrainable circadian rhythms.
    14. (1983). Effects of restricted daily feeding on freerunning circadian rhythms in rats.
    15. (2003). Entrainment of circadian programs.
    16. (1999). essential for maintenance of circadian rhythms.
    17. (1980). Feeding schedules and the circadian organization of behavior in the rat.
    18. (2003). Food-entrained circadian rhythms are sustained in arrhythmic Clk/Clk mutant mice.
    19. (2001). Food-entrained circadian rhythms in rats are insensitive to deuterium oxide.
    20. (2000). Impaired cued and contextual memory in NPAS2-deficient mice.
    21. (2006). Lack of food anticipation in Per2 mutant mice.
    22. (1972). Loss of a circadian adrenal corticosterone rhythm following suprachiasmatic lesions in the rat.
    23. (1999). mCRY1 and mCRY2 are essential components of the negative limb of the circadian clock feedback loop.
    24. (1997). Molecular characterization of two mammalian bHLH-PAS domain proteins selectively expressed in the central nervous system.
    25. (2006). Molecular components of the mammalian circadian clock.
    26. (2000). Mop3 is an essential component of the master circadian pacemaker in mammals.
    27. (1994). Mutagenesis and mapping of a mouse gene, Clock, essential for circadian behavior.
    28. (2001). NPAS2: an analog of clock operative in the mammalian forebrain.
    29. (2006). Persistence of a behavioral food-anticipatory circadian rhythm following dorsomedial hypothalamic ablation in rats.
    30. (1984). Phase shifts of circadian rhythms in activity entrained to food access.
    31. (1997). Positional cloning of the mouse circadian clock gene.
    32. (1965). Rat’s anticipation of diurnal and a-diurnal feeding.
    33. (2000). Resetting central and peripheral circadian oscillators in transgenic rats.
    34. (1992). Resetting of a feeding-entrainable circadian clock in the rat.
    35. (2002). The ‘‘other’’ circadian system: food as a Zeitgeber.
    36. (1998). The basic-helix-loop-helixPAS orphan MOP3 forms transcriptionally active complexes with circadian and hypoxia factors.
    37. (1982). The clocks that time us : physiology of the circadian timing system. Cambridge Mass.:
    38. (1997). The mouse Clock mutation behaves as an antimorph and maps within the W19H deletion, distal of Kit.
    39. (1999). The mPer2 gene encodes a functional component of the mammalian circadian clock.
    40. (1962). The rat’s adjustment to a-diurnal feeding cycles.

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.