Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 promotes ultraviolet (UV)-triggered long-term detrimental effects such as cancer formation and premature skin aging. Although histone modifications may play a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of MMP-1, the relationship between UV-induced histone modification and MMP-1 expression is not completely understood. Here, we identify regulators of histone acetylation that may link UV-mediated DNA damage and MMP-1 induction by UV in cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) in vitro. UV irradiation of HDFs induced MMP-1 expression and increased the level of phosphorylation of H2AX (γ-H2AX), p53 and the acetylation of histone H3 (acetyl-H3). Total histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymatic activity was decreased by UV irradiation, while histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity was increased. Suppression of p300 histone acetyltransferase (p300HAT) activity by the p300HAT inhibitor anacardic acid (AA) or by down-regulation of p300 by siRNA prevented UV-induced MMP-1 expression and inhibited UV-enhanced γ-H2AX, p53 level, and acetyl-H3. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we observed that γ-H2AX, p53, acetyl-H3, p300 and c-Jun were consistently recruited by UV to a distinct region (−2067/−1768) adjacent to the p300 binding site (−1858/−1845) in the MMP-1 promoter. In addition, these recruitments of γ-H2AX, p53, acetyl-H3, p300 and c-Jun to the p300-2 site were significantly abrogated by post-treatment with AA. Furthermore, overexpression of p300 increased the basal and UV-induced MMP-1 promoter activity. Our results suggest that p300HAT plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of MMP-1 by UV
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