In 2001, a World Health Assembly resolution urged member states to ensure treatment against schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in endemic areas with the goal of attaining a minimum target of at least 75% of all school-aged children by 2010. In the highly endemic Rainforest Zone of Pernambuco (ZMP), northeast Brazil, the Schistosomiasis Control Program has registered a cumulative coverage of only 20% of the population at risk, which jeopardizes the accomplishment of the minimum target for that area. Demographic and parasitological data from a representative municipality of the ZMP provide evidence that the current, community-based approach to control can be complemented with school-based actions. In the most troubled municipalities, individual diagnosis and treatment could be focused on school-aged children rather than whole populations without compromising the principles of the primary health care system. Local health and education teams should be encouraged to include school-based interventions to scale up coverage and achieve a rapid impact on infection
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