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The Chaperones Hsp90 and Cdc37 Mediate the Maturation and Stabilization of Protein Kinase C through a Conserved PXXP Motif in the C-terminal Tail*♦

By Christine M. Gould, Natarajan Kannan, Susan S. Taylor and Alexandra C. Newton


The life cycle of protein kinase C (PKC) is tightly controlled by mechanisms that mature the enzyme, sustain the activation-competent enzyme, and degrade the enzyme. Here we show that a conserved PXXP motif (Kannan, N., Haste, N., Taylor, S. S., and Neuwald, A. F. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 1272–1277), in the C-terminal tail of AGC (c-AMP-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase G/protein kinase C) kinases, controls the processing phosphorylation of conventional and novel PKC isozymes, a required step in the maturation of the enzyme into a signaling-competent species. Mutation of both Pro-616 and Pro-619 to Ala in the conventional PKC βII abolishes the phosphorylation and activity of the kinase. Co-immunoprecipitation studies reveal that conventional and novel, but not atypical, PKC isozymes bind the chaperones Hsp90 and Cdc37 through a PXXP-dependent mechanism. Inhibitors of Hsp90 and Cdc37 significantly reduce the rate of processing phosphorylation of PKC. Of the two C-terminal sites processed by phosphorylation, the hydrophobic motif, but not the turn motif, is regulated by Hsp90. Overlay of purified Hsp90 onto a peptide array containing peptides covering the catalytic domain of PKC βII identified regions surrounding the PXXP segment, but not the PXXP motif itself, as major binding determinants for Hsp90. These Hsp90-binding regions, however, are tethered to the C-terminal tail via a “molecular clamp” formed between the PXXP motif and a conserved Tyr (Tyr-446) in the αE-helix. Disruption of the clamp by mutation of the Tyr to Ala recapitulates the phosphorylation defect of mutating the PXXP motif. These data are consistent with a model in which a molecular clamp created by the PXXP motif in the C-terminal tail and determinants in the αE-helix of the catalytic domain allows the chaperones Hsp90 and Cdc37 to bind newly synthesized PKC, a required event in the processing of PKC by phosphorylation

Topics: Mechanisms of Signal Transduction
Publisher: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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