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Evaluation of the effectiveness of semen processing techniques to remove bovine viral diarrhea virus from experimentally contaminated semen samples

By Andrea G. Galuppo, Nelson B. Junior, Nathalia S. Arruda, Angela O. Corbellini, Catarina M. Chiappetta, Danielle L. Pavão, Magali D’Angelo, Cláudio W. Canal and José L. Rodrigues

Abstract

AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of three semen processing techniques, Percoll gradient centrifugation, Swim-up and a combination of Swim-up and Percoll gradient centrifugation, to reduce the viral load of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in experimentally infected semen samples. The evaluation was performed using two approaches: first, searching for the presence of virus in the processed samples (via virus titration and RT-PCR) and second, ascertaining the possible interference on in vitro embryo production. The sperm count and DNA integrity (Comet assay) of the processed samples were analyzed (Experiment 1). The amount of virus in the processed samples was determined by titration in cell culture (Experiment 2). The samples processed by Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation were utilized for in vitro embryo production, and the embryos produced were tested for BVDV by RT-PCR (Experiment 3). Sperm concentration, Comet assay and embryo production were analyzed by chi-squared tests (P<0.05). There was a significant difference between sperm separation techniques when the sperm count and Comet assay were analyzed. The sperm count obtained from the Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation group was lower than that obtained in either of the two other groups (Swim up and Percoll gradient centrifugation), and the Comet assay showed that the combination of the two semen processing techniques (Swim up/Percoll gradient) produced a 1.1% prevalence of Comet level 2, which was not observed in the other groups. The BVDV titer (106.68TCID50/mL) added to experimentally infected semen samples decreased after Percoll gradient centrifugation to 102.3–101TCID50/mL; for the Swim up group, the titer range was 103.3–101.87TCID50/mL, and in the Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation group, BVDV was undetectable. The decreases in titer varied from 99.9% in the Swim up-processed group to 100% in the Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation group. In vitro embryo production displayed similar blastocyst development rates among all groups, and RT-PCR was negative for the produced embryos. The data showed that the combination of Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation promoted the elimination of BVDV from the semen samples without damaging spermatozoa cells and also allowed successful in vitro embryo production free of BVDV. Hence, the risk of BVDV contamination is negligible for the embryo recipient

Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Year: 2013
DOI identifier: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2012.11.029
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