Objectives. Sepsis and acute pancreatitis have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that have been implicated in the progression of multiple organ failure. Drotrecogin alfa, an analogue of endogenous protein C, reduces mortality in clinical sepsis. Our objective was to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of activated protein C (APC) in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Subjects and method. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of 5% Na taurocholate. Hourly bolus injections of saline or recombinant human APC (drotrecogin alfa) was commenced via femoral venous catheter four hours after the induction of acute pancreatitis. The experiment was terminated nine hours after pancratitis induction. Animals in group one (n=20) had a sham operation while animals in group two (n=20) received saline and animals in group three (n=20) received drotrecogin alfa boluses after acute pancreatitis induction. Pancreatic tissue for histopathologic scores and myeloperoxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activites were collected, and blood for serum amylase, urea, creatinine, and inleukin-6 measurements was withdrawn. Results. Serum amylase activity was significantly lower in the APC treated group than the untreated group (17,435±432 U/L vs. 27,426±118 U/L, respectively). While the serum interleukin-6 concentration in the APC untreated group was significantly lower than the treated group (970±323 pg/mL vs. 330±368 pg/mL, respectively). Conclusion. In the early phase of acute pancreatitis, drotrecogin alfa treatment did not result in a significant improvement in oxidative and inflammatory parameters or renal functions
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