Latent structure models involve real, potentially observable variables and latent, unobservable variables. The framework includes various particular types of model, such as factor analysis, latent class analysis, latent trait analysis, latent profile models, mixtures of factor analysers, state-space models and others. The simplest scenario, of a single discrete latent variable, includes finite mixture models, hidden Markov chain models and hidden Markov random field models. The paper gives a brief tutorial of the application of maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches to the estimation of parameters within these models, emphasising especially the fact that computational complexity varies greatly among the different scenarios. In the case of a single discrete latent variable, the issue of assessing its cardinality is discussed. Techniques such as the EM algorithm, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and variational approximations are mentioned
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