While both murine and human homologues of the LSP1 gene (lymphocyte-specific gene 1) and its protein products have been identified, studies on human LSP1 have been limited. The present report describes a detailed immunocytochemical study of the distribution and localization of human LSP1 in both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues. The specificity of the monoclonal anti-LSP1 reagent was confirmed by expression cloning and transfection studies. The intracellular 60 000 MW LSP1 protein was found to be present in peripheral blood B cells, monocytes and granulocytes but absent in a subpopulation of circulating T cells (10–15% of CD3-positive T cells). The presence of LSP1 protein in medullary thymocytes, but only in scattered cortical thymocytes, provided additional evidence for heterogeneity of expression in T cells. Novel observations also included the presence of LSP1 in plasma cells, dendritic cells and Langerhans’ cells. The leucocyte-restricted distribution of LSP1 protein means that it may play an important role in haematopathology. LSP1 protein was detected in a wide range of leukaemias and lymphomas, particularly of B-cell origin, and in tumour cells in classical Hodgkin’s disease. Of interest was the indication of a reciprocal relationship in the expression of LSP1 and ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) proteins in patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. As the anti-LSP1 reagent used in the present study recognizes a formalin-resistant epitope it should be of considerable value in the diagnosis of routinely fixed material
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