Article thumbnail

Inflammatory Breast Diseases during Lactation: Health Effects on the Newborn—A Literature Review

By Achim Wöckel, Michael Abou-Dakn, Anna Beggel and Petra Arck


Breastfeeding-associated inflammatory breast diseases appear especially during the first twelve weeks postpartum and are the most common reason for early cessation of breastfeeding. It also becomes increasingly evident that these inflammatory mammary diseases are triggered or perpetuated in a large part by psychosocial stress. Immunological processes taking place during this cascade in the mammary gland and consequences for the breastfeed newborn are mostly yet unknown. This review summarizes insights from studies on modulation of cytokine levels in breast milk during inflammatory processes like milk stasis and mastitis systematically. It also gives an overview on possible pathological effects, which these cytokine changes in the breast milk might have on the newborn

Topics: Review Article
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.

Suggested articles


  1. (2007). A .L .R i v a s ,S .J .S c h w a g e r ,R .N .G o n z ´
  2. (2001). A .S e v i ,L .T a i b i ,M .A l b e n z i o ,A .M u s c i o ,S .D e l l ’ A q u i l a ,a n d F. Napolitano, “Behavioral, adrenal, immune, and productive responses of lactating ewes to regrouping and relocation,”
  3. (1998). a p o l i t a n o ,G .d eR o s a ,F .G r a s s o ,G .M i g l i o r i ,a n dA .
  4. (2005). and M.Tarakc ¸o˘ glu,“Persistencyofhighproinflammatorycytokine levels from colostrum to mature milk in preeclampsia,”
  5. (2007). B .K e l l e r t ,a n dS .E .J u u l ,“ An e wm o d e lo fn e o n a t a ls t r e s s which produces lasting neurobehavioral effects in adult rats,”
  6. (2005). b o u - D a k na n dA .W¨ ockel, “Breastfeeding and weaning,”
  7. (1996). B u r t o na n dM .E .K e h r l iJ r . ,“ E ffects of dexamethasone on bovine circulating T lymphocyte populations,”
  8. (2003). Bj¨ orkst´ en, “Cytokine, chemokine and secretory IgA levels in human milk in relation to atopic disease and IgA production
  9. (2007). Breast-feeding duration and infant atopic manifestations, by maternal allergic status, in the first 2 years of life
  10. (1994). Breastfeeding practices and lactation mastitis,”
  11. (2001). Cell subpopulations and cytokine expression in cow milk in response to chronic Staphylococcus aureus infection,”
  12. (2006). Characterization of cytokine expression in milk somatic cells during intramammary infections with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus by real-time PCR,”
  13. (2006). Comparison of two different nutritive conditions against the changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of periparturient dairy cows,”
  14. (2007). Cytokines in human colostrum and neonatal jaundice,”
  15. (2003). Cytokines in mammary lymph and milk during endotoxininduced bovine mastitis,”
  16. (2006). D.D.Bannerman,M.J.Paape,andA.Chockalingam,“Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection elicits increased production of transforming growth factor-α,
  17. (2003). Dynamics of leukocytes and cytokines during experimentally induced
  18. (2006). Early immunological development and mortality from infectious disease in later life,”
  19. (1999). H a w k e s ,D . - L .B r y a n ,M .J .J a m e s ,a n dR .A .G i b s o n ,
  20. (2007). Immunoglobulin-A profile in breast milk from mothers delivering full term and preterm infants,”
  21. Immunological activities associated with milk,”
  22. (2005). Increased milk levels of transforming growth factor-α, β1, and β2 during Escherichia coli-induced mastitis,”
  23. (2007). Influence of stress on inflammatory breast diseases during lactation,”
  24. (1997). Inhibition of milk ejection in cows by oxytocin receptor blockade, α-adrenergic receptor stimulation and
  25. (2007). Insulin-like growth factors and binding proteins in early milk from mothers of preterm and term infants,”
  26. Levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and trace elements (Zn, Cu) in breast milk from mothers of preterm and term Infants,” MediatorsofInflammation,vol.2005,no.6,pp.331–336,2005.
  27. (2006). Lodinov´ a-ˇ Z´ adn´ ıkov´ a, J. ˇ Ziˇ zka, et al., “Cytokine levels in healthy and allergic mothers and their children during the first year of life,” Pediatric Allergy and Immunology,
  28. (2007). M.J.Meaney,M.Szyf,andJ.R.Seckl,“Epigeneticmechanisms of perinatal programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and health,” Trends in
  29. (2000). Mammary gland immunology around parturition. Influence of stress, nutrition and genetics,”
  30. (2002). Maternal stress and T-cell differentiation of the developing immune system: possible implications for the development of asthma and atopy,”
  31. (2003). Metabolic and lactational responses during recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α treatment in lactating cows,”
  32. (2005). Mothers in stress: consequences for the offspring,”
  33. (2005). Pfaffl,“ S h o r t - t e r me ffects on pro-inflammatory cytokine, lactoferrin and CD14 mRNA expression levels in bovine immunoseparated milk and blood cells treated by LPS,”
  34. (2007). Psychological stress and puerperal mastitis—possible pathophysiological mechanisms,” Current Women’s Health Reviews,
  35. (2007). r y a n ,P .H .H a r t ,K .D .F o r s y t h ,a n dR .A .G i b s o n , “Immunomodulatory constituents of human milk change in response to infant bronchiolitis,” Pediatric Allergy and Immunology,
  36. (2005). Starting the process of mother-infant bonding,”
  37. (2005). The bovine innate immune response during experimentally-induced
  38. (2003). The cytokine markers in Staphylococcus aureus mastitis of bovine mammary gland,”
  39. (1995). The diagnosis and management of breast problems during pregnancy and lactation,”
  40. (2002). The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases,”
  41. (2007). The xMAP TM technique can be used for detection of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β,I L -
  42. (2006). Transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukin-10 in breast milk and development of atopic diseases
  43. (1997). Work Group on Breastfeeding, “American Academy of Pediatrics: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk,”
  44. (1998). World Health Organisation/Division of Child Health Development, Evidence for the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding,
  45. (2007). Z h a n g ,S .F .Z h a n g ,T .D .W a n g ,X .J .G u o ,a n dR .L .H u , “Mammary gland expression of antibacterial peptide genes to inhibit bacterial pathogens causing mastitis,”