Self-testing for human papillomavirus using a vaginal swab: placing prevention of cervical cancer in the patient’s hands Although the implementation of cervical cytology (Pap) screen-ing has been responsible for a dramatic decline in the incidence of cervical cancer over the past 50 years in developed countries [1], its limitations are evidenced by the fact that cervical cancer remains a leading cause of death among women worldwide [2–4]. The primary limitation of the Pap test is its low sensitivity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), necessitating frequent screening intervals [5]. Furthermore, many women do not participate in screening programs or adhere to recommend-ations for follow-up of abnormal results, perhaps because they do not understand the rationale for screening or find the pelvic examination to be painful or embarrassing [6–8]. In developin

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