Editorial Comments The eye, the kidney and microcirculation


analysis When Hermann von Helmholtz invented the direct ophthal-moscope in 1850, he opened the door to a non-invasive visualization of human microcirculation in vivo at the retina (Figure 1). Only a few years later, on 4 September 1864, a young man presented a talk on ‘The blood vessels of the hu-man eye ’ at the Heidelberg Ophthalmology Congress—his namewas Theodor Leber, and today, he is regarded as one of the founders of ophthalmic research. Only relatively minor changes have been made subsequently to Leber’s original anatomical drawings of the ocular vasculature [1]. In 1904, W. M. Bayliss was the first to describe the myogenic constriction of arterioles when transmural pres-sure is elevated [2]. This so-called ‘Bayliss effect ’ is a cen-tral mechanism of the autoregulation to maintain bloo

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