In this study, we monitored the temporal breadths, frequencies, and functions of antiviral CD4 and CD8 T cells in 2 of 22 DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vaccinated macaques that lost control of a simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6P challenge by 196 weeks postchallenge. Our results show that both mutation and exhaustion contributed to escape. With the reappearance of viremia, responding CD8 and CD4 T cells underwent an initial increase and then loss of breadth and frequency. Antiviral gamma interferon (IFN-γ)- and interleukin 2-coproducing cells were lost before IFN-γ-producing cells and CD4 cells before CD8 cells. At euthanasia, all CD8, but no CD4, Gag epitopes detected during long-term control contained mutations
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