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Expansion and Exhaustion of T-Cell Responses during Mutational Escape from Long-Term Viral Control in Two DNA/Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Vaccinated and Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIV-89.6P-Challenged Macaques▿

By Shanmugalakshmi Sadagopal, Rama Rao Amara, Sunil Kannanganat, Sunita Sharma, Lakshmi Chennareddi and Harriet L. Robinson


In this study, we monitored the temporal breadths, frequencies, and functions of antiviral CD4 and CD8 T cells in 2 of 22 DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vaccinated macaques that lost control of a simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6P challenge by 196 weeks postchallenge. Our results show that both mutation and exhaustion contributed to escape. With the reappearance of viremia, responding CD8 and CD4 T cells underwent an initial increase and then loss of breadth and frequency. Antiviral gamma interferon (IFN-γ)- and interleukin 2-coproducing cells were lost before IFN-γ-producing cells and CD4 cells before CD8 cells. At euthanasia, all CD8, but no CD4, Gag epitopes detected during long-term control contained mutations

Topics: Pathogenesis and Immunity
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
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Provided by: PubMed Central
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