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Downambient temperature.5-8 A transparent and conductive ZnO film could not be obtained by potentiostatic deposition at a constant potential.9 Although a resistivity as low as 4 3 1023 V cm could be realized at a positive potential, the film showed poor optical trans-parency in the visible light region because of the large surface irreg-ularity and the existence of pores.6 Homma suggested in chemical deposition of Ni-P alloy film that a dense and defect-free film could be obtained by raising the nucleation density on substrate.10 It is generally agreed in cathodic deposition of metals and alloys from aqueous solutions that nucleation density strongly depended on cathodic potential.11 Use of the two-step electrolysis technique con-sisted of first-step electrolysis at more negative potential for nucle-ation and second-step electrolysis at the less negative potential for film growth as a general strategy for the cathodic deposition. In this paper, the two-step electrolysis technique has been devel

Year: 2016
OAI identifier: oai:CiteSeerX.psu:10.1.1.1004.5257
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