Fluoromethyl-2,2-difluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)vinyl ether (FDVE or “compound A”), a haloalkene degradant of the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane, is nephrotoxic in rats. FDVE bioactivation mediates the toxicity, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms of toxification are unknown. FDVE caused rapid and brisk changes in kidney gene expression, providing potential insights into mechanisms of toxicity, and potential biomarkers for nephrotoxicity.1 Nevertheless, it is unknown whether gene-expression changes are reflected in protein expression, or whether such tissue changes would be reflected in excreted urine proteins. This investigation was to evaluate FDVE effects on urine protein excretion using mass spectrometry
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