Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

A methodological framework to distinguish spectrum effects from spectrum biases and to assess diagnostic and screening test accuracy for patient populations: Application to the Papanicolaou cervical cancer smear test

By Caroline Elie and Joël Coste
Topics: Research Article
Publisher: BioMed Central
OAI identifier:
Provided by: PubMed Central
Download PDF:
Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s):
  • http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g... (external link)
  • Suggested articles


    1. (1997). Body mass index compared to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evidence for a spectrum bias.
    2. (2005). Comparing Rasch analyses probability estimates to sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios when examining the utility of medical diagnostic tests.
    3. (2001). Cost-effectiveness of monolayers and human papillomavirus testing compared to that of conventional Papanicolaou smears for cervical cancer screening: protocol of the study of the French Society of Clinical Cytology. Diagn Cytopathol
    4. (1996). DB: Multivariable prognostic models: issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors. Stat Med
    5. de Sanjose S: Chapter 1: Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer--burden and assessment of causality.
    6. (2003). de Vet HC, Lijmer JG: The STARD statement for reporting studies of diagnostic accuracy: explanation and elaboration. Ann Intern Med
    7. (2003). de Vet HC: Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: The STARD Initiative. Ann Intern Med
    8. (1998). Diagnostic accuracy of technetium-99m-MIBI myocardial SPECT in women and men.
    9. (2004). EA: Spectrum bias of a rapid antigen detection test for group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis in a pediatric population. Pediatrics
    10. (2005). EW: A new logistic regression approach for the evaluation of diagnostic test results. Med Decis Making
    11. (2003). FE: Sensitivity and specificity should be deemphasized in diagnostic accuracy studies. Acad Radiol
    12. (1996). Feinstein AR: Context bias. A problem in diagnostic radiology. Jama
    13. (1978). Feinstein AR: Problems of spectrum and bias in evaluating the efficacy of diagnostic tests.
    14. (1995). Feinstein AR: Use of methodological standards in diagnostic test research. Getting better but still not good. Jama
    15. (1994). Foundations of medical diagnosis: what actually are the parameters involved in Bayes' theorem? Stat Med
    16. (1995). GA: Comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of exercise electrocardiography in biased and unbiased populations of men and women. Am Heart J
    17. (1997). Gefeller O: Variation of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and predictive values with disease prevalence. Stat Med
    18. (2002). Grobbee DE: Diagnostic studies as multivariable, prediction research.
    19. (1997). Grobbee DE: Limitations of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, and bayes' theorem in assessing diagnostic probabilities: a clinical example. Epidemiology
    20. (1999). Grobbee DE: Redundancy of single diagnostic test evaluation. Epidemiology
    21. (1986). HJ: A model for assessing the sensitivity and specificity of tests subject to selection bias. Application to exercise radionuclide ventriculography for diagnosis of coronary artery disease. J Chronic Dis
    22. (1998). Holzer CE 3rd, Volk RJ: Ethnic and sex bias in primary care screening tests for alcohol use disorders. Ann Intern Med
    23. (1997). JB: Sex and test verification bias. Impact on the diagnostic value of exercise echocardiography. Circulation
    24. (1992). JS: Spectrum bias in the evaluation of diagnostic tests: lessons from the rapid dipstick test for urinary tract infection. Ann Intern Med
    25. Kjaer SK: Chapter 2: Natural history of anogenital human papillomavirus infection and neoplasia.
    26. (1996). Kucharczyk W: The effect of spectrum bias on the utility of magnetic resonance imaging and evoked potentials in the diagnosis of suspected multiple sclerosis. Neurology
    27. (2003). Magdelenat H: Efficiency of the hybrid capture 2 HPV DNA test in cervical cancer screening. A study by the French Society of Clinical Cytology.
    28. (1991). Matchar DB: Likelihood ratios with confidence: sample size estimation for diagnostic test studies.
    29. (1992). MC: The logistic modeling of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of a diagnostic test.
    30. (2004). Morabia A: Spectrum bias: a quantitative and graphical analysis of the variability of medical diagnostic test performance. Stat Med
    31. (1991). Practical statistics for medical research.
    32. (1999). program]. Version 8.
    33. (2002). PW: Sonographic evaluation of liver nodularity: Inspection of deep versus superficial surfaces of the liver.
    34. (1984). RA: Factors affecting sensitivity and specificity of exercise electrocardiography. Multivariable analysis.
    35. (1984). RA: Regression modelling strategies for improved prognostic prediction. Stat Med
    36. (2004). Sources of variation and bias in studies of diagnostic accuracy: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med
    37. (2000). Subgroup analysis and other (mis)uses of baseline data in clinical trials. Lancet
    38. (2002). Subgroup analysis, covariate adjustment and baseline comparisons in clinical trial reporting: current practice and problems. Stat Med
    39. (1991). The Bethesda System for reporting cervical/vaginal cytologic diagnoses: revised after the second National Cancer Institute Workshop,
    40. (2001). The relationship between the clinical features of pharyngitis and the sensitivity of a rapid antigen test: evidence of spectrum bias. Ann Emerg Med
    41. Tibshirani R: An introduction to the Bootstrap.
    42. (2004). TJ: Subgroup analyses in randomized trials: risks of subgroupspecific analyses; power and sample size for the interaction test.
    43. (1998). Two-sided confidence intervals for the single proportion: comparison of seven methods. Stat Med
    44. (2000). van Houwelingen HC: The (in)validity of sensitivity and specificity. Stat Med
    45. (1995). Verbeek AL: Problems in selecting the adequate patient population from existing data files for assessment studies of new diagnostic tests.
    46. (2003). Vielh P: Cross sectional study of conventional cervical smear, monolayer cytology, and human papillomavirus DNA testing for cervical cancer screening. Bmj
    47. (2002). WC: Spectrum bias or spectrum effect? Subgroup variation in diagnostic test evaluation. Ann Intern Med
    48. (2005). Weinreb RN: Use of progressive glaucomatous optic disk change as the reference standard for evaluation of diagnostic tests in glaucoma.

    To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.