Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is an emerging nosocomial pathogen. Little is known about its risk factors or mortality. We performed a case-case-control study to assess the risks for CRKP isolation and a retrospective cohort study to assess mortality in three groups of hospitalized adults: (i) patients from whom CRKP was isolated, (ii) patients from whom carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella spp. (CSKS) were isolated, and (iii) controls from whom no Klebsiella spp. were isolated. After adjustment for length of stay (LOS), the demographics, comorbidities, and exposures of each case group were compared with those of the controls. Significant covariates were incorporated into LOS-adjusted multivariable models. In the mortality study, we evaluated the effect of CRKP on in-hospital death. There were 48 patients with CRKP isolation (21 died [44%]), 56 patients with CSKS isolation (7 died [12.5%]), and 59 controls (1 died [2%]). Independent risk factors for CRKP isolation were poor functional status (odds ratio [OR], 15.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0 to 58.6; P < 0.001); intensive care unit (ICU) stay (OR, 17.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 201.9; P = 0.02); and receipt of antibiotics (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.0 to 19.2; P = 0.05), particularly fluoroquinolones (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 49.4; P = 0.04). CRKP was independently associated with death when patients with CRKP were compared with patients with CSKS (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.7 to 17.1; P = 0.005) and with controls (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 2.4 to 18.8; P < 0.001). After adjustment for the severity of illness, CRKP isolation remained predictive of death, albeit with a lower OR (for the CRKP group versus the CSKS group, OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 13.6; and P = 0.03; for the CRKP group versus the controls, OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.7 to 14.8; and P = 0.004). CRKP affects patients with poor functional status, an ICU stay, and antibiotic exposure and is an independent predictor of death
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