Comparative evaluation of genome-wide gene expression profiles in ruptured and unruptured human intracranial aneurysms

Abstract

Few studies have evaluated the over or the underexpression of genes directly in samples of aneurysmal wall and extracranial pericranial vascular tissue to investigate the genetic influence in formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. We present the results obtained using the DNA microarray technique analysis on sample tissues collected during surgery. We collected and analyzed 12 aneurismal and 9 peripheral arteries (superficial temporal (STA) and middle meningeal artery (MMA) specimens from ruptured aneurysm group patients (13 cases), 10 aneurismal and 12 STA and MMA samples from unruptured aneurysm group patients (14 cases) and 5 STA and MMA artery specimens from control group patients (4 cases). Total RNA was isolated from samples and subjected to cDNA microarray analysis with the use of the human genome U133A GeneChip oligonucleotide microarray (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA), which allows to analyze a total number of 14,500 genes in the same time. For genes of interest, real-time RT-PCR was performed to confirm their expression level. Total RNA was isolated from samples and subjected to DNA microarray analysis with the use of the human genome U133A GeneChip oligonucleotide microarray, which allows to analyze a total number of 14,500 genes at the same time. For genes of interest, real-time RT-PCR was performed to confirm their expression level. Regarding ruptured aneurysms, genes were identified showing differential expressions (overexpressed or downregulated) pertaining to specific pathways, particularly those for the structural proteins of the extracellular matrix, members of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family (which resulted as being overexpressed) and genes involved in apoptotic phenomena. Particularly, real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed the upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9 and pro-apoptotic genes, such as Fas, Bax and Bid, and the downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes, such as Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-2. In a compared analyses of ruptured vs unruptured aneurysms, a different expression was also detected regarding gene coding the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP-3), which appeared markedly downregulated in unruptured aneurysms, where its expression in unruptured aneurysms was similar to that observed in controls. Another gene differently expressed is nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which appeared overexpressed in ruptured aneurysms when compared to unruptured aneurysms. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, that compares gene expression profiles (genoma-wide) in intracranial aneurysms. The results of our study suggest that the inhibitor of the metalloproteinase, the pathway of nitric oxide and the apoptotic process play a key-role in reducing the resistance of the arterial wall, that can result in formation and rupture of the intracranial aneurysms

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This paper was published in PubliCatt.

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