Optimization Techniques of Hybrid Renewable Energy System: A Review


The term renewable energy is energy derived from a broad spectrum of resources, all of which are based on self-renewing energy sources such as sunlight, wind, flowing water, the earth's internal heat, and biomass such as energy crops, agricultural and industrial waste, and municipal waste. These resources can be used to produce electricity for all economic sectors, fuels for transportation, and heat for buildings and industrial processes [1].\ud \ud Germany has new targets for renewable energy by 2020: to increase the share of renewable energy in power generation sector from 12% (2006) to 25-30%, in heating sector from 6% (2006) to 14%, in fuel sector from 6.6% (2006) to 17% i.e. from 8% (2006) to 18-19% share of renewable of final energy consumption (FEC) till 2020. Long-term target is 50% share of FEC in 2050 [2]. Renewable energy contributes as much today to US energy production as nuclear power (10%) [1]. The Chinese market has been hosted in anticipation of the country's new Renewable Energy Law, which entered into force 2006. As a result nearly 500 MW of new wind generation capacity was installed in 2005. This brings China up to 1260 MW of capacity, passing the 1000 MW capacity which is often deemed critical for sustained growth [3].\ud \ud In recent years, hybrid renewable power generating setups i.e. PV (Photovoltaic)-wind-battery or PV-wind-diesel are getting popularity for small remote applications because they give continuous uninterruptable power even in case, that any one of these fail to give power due to some bad environment conditions. Different improvements have been done in all the sectors to improve the overall efficiency of renewable energy setups such as use of sun-tracking system and/or use of reflectors to get maximum amount of light on solar panel, use of variable speed generator to get constant voltage and frequency output from even a fluctuating speed wind turbine, enhancement of power quality by using better battery energy storage system, and/or use of better control algorithm (i.e. Fuzzy logic) [4] and better optimization and simulation software.\ud \ud This paper reviews optimization technologies to be integrated or embedded into existing and future hybrid renewable energy setups. Thereafter, available power electronic interface solutions for each renewable source, available storage technologies, hybrid operation of renewable sources, various control systems, as well as their requirements will be discussed in detail

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