For most rural populations in developing countries, travel to access basic needs is considered a burden, in terms of wastage of their daily time and efforts. Lack of adequate access to health, education and market centres is found to be responsible for problems like high mortality rate and low literacy rate and high sense of isolation. Recent research has recommended that time constraints should be incorporated in attempting to model rural travel behaviour. The research reported in this thesis integrates household accessibility analysis within an activity-based framework to model travel demand. The conceptual development recognised the derived nature of travel. The household access needs are transformed into individual activities through household role allocation. The spatial and temporal constraints on the activities along with monetary, cultural and social constraints on individuals determine accessibility of the activities to the individuals. Probabilistic behavioural models have been developed to model individual activity choice and the resulting travel. Household data collected from representative rural areas of Pakistan were used to analyse rural activity-travel behaviour. Household activities analysed were Work, Education, Market, Health and Leisure. The results indicated the varying nature of these activities and that of individuals responsible for carrying out the activities. It was found that Household Heads are responsible for carrying out most out-of-home activities required to fulfil household needs. Models developed were applied to various situations. The models in general were found to validate the concepts developed in the research. Prediction results for activities Work and Education were in agreement to the observed data. Results for activities Market, Health and Leisure showed that a time horizon must be considered to recognise the nondaily nature of these activities. Models addressing time horizon decision showed better agreement between predicted and observed travel demand
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