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A pulse tube refrigerator below 2K

By MY Ming-Yao Xu, ATAM Fons de Waele and YL Ju


Up to now, all pulse tube refrigerators operating at the liquid helium temperature range use 4He as the working fluid. However, the lambda transition of 4He is a barrier for reaching temperatures below 2 K. Theoretical analysis in this paper shows that, using 3He, the temperature limit is below 2 K, and the efficiency of a 4 K pulse tube refrigerator can be improved significantly. A three-stage pulse tube refrigerator is constructed. A compressor with input power of 4 kW and a rotary valve are used to generate the pressure oscillations. With 4He, a minimum average temperature of 2.19 K was reached. Replacing 4He by 3He, at the same valve settings and operating parameters, the minimum average temperature goes down to 1.87 K and the cooling power at 4.2 K is enhanced about 60%. After fine tuning of the valves, a minimum average temperature of 1.78 K was obtained. This is the lowest temperature achieved by mechanical refrigerators

Publisher: 'Elsevier BV'
Year: 1999
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Repository TU/e
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