Location of Repository

Petrogenetic processes in the ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism in the Kola Alkaline Province: a review

By Hilary Downes, E. Balaganskaya, Andrew D. Beard, R. Liferovich and D. Demaiffe

Abstract

Igneous rocks of the Devonian Kola Alkaline Carbonatite Province (KACP) in NW Russia and eastern Finland can be classified into four groups: (a) primitive mantle-derived silica-undersaturated silicate magmas; (b) evolved alkaline and nepheline syenites; (c) cumulate rocks; (d) carbonatites and phoscorites, some of which may also be cumulates. There is no obvious age difference between these various groups, so all of the magma-types were formed at the same time in a relatively restricted area and must therefore be petrogenetically related. Both sodic and potassic varieties of primitive silicate magmas are present. On major element variation diagrams, the cumulate rocks plot as simple mixtures of their constituent minerals (olivine, clinopyroxene, calcite etc). There are complete compositional trends between carbonatites, phoscorites and silicate cumulates, which suggests that many carbonatites and phoscorites are also cumulates. CaO/Al2O3 ratios for ultramafic and mafic silicate rocks in dykes and pipes range up to 5, indicating a very small degree of melting of a carbonated mantle at depth. Damkjernites appear to be transitional to carbonatites. Trace element modelling indicates that all the mafic silicate magmas are related to small degrees of melting of a metasomatised garnet peridotite source. Similarities of the REE patterns and initial Sr and Nd isotope compositions for ultramafic alkaline silicate rocks and carbonatites indicate that there is a strong relationship between the two magma-types. There is also a strong petrogenetic link between carbonatites, kimberlites and alkaline ultramafic lamprophyres. Fractional crystallisation of olivine, diopside, melilite and nepheline gave rise to the evolved nepheline syenites, and formed the ultramafic cumulates. All magmas in the KACP appear to have originated in a single event, possibly triggered by the arrival of hot material (mantle plume?) beneath the Archaean/Proterozoic lithosphere of the northern Baltic Shield that had been recently metasomatised. Melting of the carbonated garnet peridotite mantle formed a spectrum of magmas including carbonatite, damkjernite, melilitite, melanephelinite and ultramafic lamprophyre. Pockets of phlogopite metasomatised lithospheric mantle also melted to form potassic magmas including kimberlite. Depth of melting, degree of melting and presence of metasomatic phases are probably the major factors controlling the precise composition of the primary melts formed

Topics: es
Publisher: Elsevier
Year: 2005
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.bbk.ac.uk.oai2:157

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (1988). (in press). Rare earth minerals in Kola carbonatites. In: Phoscorites and Carbonatites from mantle to mine. doi
  2. (1991). A new data on the morphology of the ore-bearing structures at the north segment of the Khibiny ijolite-urtite arc. Doklady Acad.
  3. (1997). A U-Pb study of baddeleyite from rocks of the Kovdor massif.
  4. (1963). About genesis of Kovdor iron-ore deposit. In: Questions of magmatism and metamorphism. doi
  5. (1999). Abstracts of the 4th Svekalapko Workshop.
  6. (2000). Agpaitic magmatism in the northeastern Baltic Shield: a study of the Niva intrusion, doi
  7. (1987). Alkaline igneous rocks of the Kola Peninsula. In: Alkaline Igneous Rocks. doi
  8. (1967). Alkaline magmatism of the Eastern Baltic Shield.
  9. (1995). Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world. Part 2. Former USSR. doi
  10. (1997). Alkaline-rare earth carbonates from carbonatites of Khibiny massif: Mineralogy and genesis. Transactions (Doklady) Russian Akad.
  11. (1988). An experimental determination of primary carbonatite magma composition. doi
  12. (1998). Ancylite-bearing carbonatites of the Seblyavr massif,
  13. (2003). Are the high 3He/ 4He ratios in oceanic basalts an indicator of deep-mantle plume components? Earth Planet. doi
  14. (2003). Are the high 3He/4He ratios in oceanic basalts an indicator of deep-mantle plume components? Earth Planet. doi
  15. (1994). Breccias of the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite deposit of magnetite and their geological meaning.
  16. (1989). Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In: Magmatism in ocean basins. doi
  17. (2002). Chemical evolution and petrogenetic implications of loparite in layered, agpaitic Lovozero complex, doi
  18. (1974). Determination of REE, doi
  19. (2003). Devonian dike swarms of alkaline, carbonatitic and primitive magma-type rocks from the south Kola Peninsula: geochemical and isotopic constraints on plume-lithospheric interaction.
  20. (1999). Dykes and explosive pipes of the Kandalaksha Graben (Kola Alkaline Province): The models of magmatic processes and evolution of the subcontinental mantle. PhD thesis.
  21. (1998). Early Proterozoic Evolution of the Northeastern Baltic Shield: A Terrane Analysis.
  22. (1990). Experimental boundaries for the origin and evolution of carbonatites. doi
  23. (1992). Experimental investigation of melts from a carbonated phlogopite lherzolite: implications for metasomatism in the continental lithospheric mantle.
  24. (2001). Garnet granulite xenoliths from the northern Baltic Shield - the underplated lower crust of a Palaeoproterozoic Large Igneous Province? doi
  25. (2002). Gas, rare isotopes and parent trace elements in ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite complexes, Kola Peninsula: identification of lower mantle plume component. doi
  26. (1983). Genetic affinity apatite-magnetite ores and carbonatites of alkaline-ultramafic massifs.
  27. (1977). Genetic problems of agpaitic magmas. Nauka Moscow, 294p (in Russian) Kogarko, L.N., 1977b. General regularities of differentiation of magmas oversaturated with alkalis.
  28. (1988). Geochemical features of the carbonatite palaeovolcano at Kontozero, Kola Peninsula.
  29. (2000). Geochemistry and mineralogy of kimberlites from the Arkhangelsk Region, NW Russia: evidence for transitional kimberlite magma types. doi
  30. (2000). Geochemistry, petrography and mineralogy of clinopyroxenite, phoscorites and carbonatites of the Seblyavr massif, Kola Alkaline Carbonatite Province, Russia Abstracts of the 5th Svekalapko Workshop.
  31. (1977). Geology and petrology of the compex of alkaline ultrabasic dykes of the Kandalaksha graben. PhD thesis.
  32. (1969). Geology and prospecting of the Kovdor Vermiculite-Phlogopite deposit.
  33. in press. Carbonatites and phoscorites from the Sokli Complex, Finland. In: Phoscorites and Carbonatites from mantle to mine. doi
  34. (1998). Initial alkaline volcanism of the Palaeozoic tectonic and magmatic activation in the North-Easten Fennoscandia: geochemical features and petrological consequences.
  35. Initial magmatism of Palaeozoic tectono-magmatic activation in the northeastern Baltic Shield: age and geochemical features of the Kurga massif,
  36. (1988). Khibiny massif – complicated poly-source intrusive of the central type.
  37. (1993). Kimberlites and related rocks of the Kola region.
  38. (2001). Kola alkaline province in the Palaeozoic: evaluation of primary mantle magma composition and magma generation conditions. doi
  39. (2000). Late Devonian diamondiferous kimberlite and alkaline picrite (?proto-kimberlite) – Magmatism in the Arkhangelsk region, doi
  40. (2003). Lithospheric structure, composition and thermal regime of the East European Craton: implications for the subsiudence of the Russian Platform. Earth Planet. doi
  41. (2000). Low mantle helium in Palaeozoic intrusions of Kola Peninsula. I Russian conference on isotopic geochronology.
  42. (1999). Low mantle plume component in Devonian Kola ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite complexes: Evidences from rare gas isotopes and related parent elements. Apatity-Nancy-Bruxelles. Printed in CRPG, Nancy. 97 p. (in Russian and English). doi
  43. (2000). Lower crustal xenoliths from Arkhangelsk kimberlite pipes: petrological, geophysical and geochemical constraints from xenoliths. doi
  44. (1998). Magmatic evolution of the melilitite-carbonatitenephelinite dyke series of the Turiy peninsula doi
  45. (1993). Mantle components of carbonatites from the Kola Alkaline Province, Russia and Finland: A Nd-Sr study. doi
  46. (1999). Mantle sources of Kola carbonatites: new Sr, Nd and geochemical evidence from the Vuorijarvi Massif. doi
  47. (2000). Mantle xenoliths from the Zimnii Bereg kimberlite deposits of rounded diamonds, Arkhangelsk Diamondiferous Province.
  48. (1971). Metallogenic features of the alkaline formations on the east part of the Baltic shield. Proseedings of Leningrad natural scientists society.
  49. (1979). Microcomponents as indicators of the differentiation of alkaline magma series, In: doi
  50. (1979). Mineral parageneses of apatite ores and carbonatites of the Seblyavr massif. doi
  51. (2004). Mineralogy and geochemistry of silicate dyke rocks associated with carbonatites from the Khibina complex (Kola, Russia) – isotope constraints on genesis and small-scale mantle sources. doi
  52. (2004). Mineralogy of carbonatites from the Sallanlatva Massif, Kola Peninsula. Extended abstract of PhD dissertation.
  53. (1998). Mineralogy of crystallised melt inclusions from Gardinier and Kovdor ultramafic alkaline complexes: implications for carbonatite genesis. doi
  54. (2000). Minerals of pyrochlore group in phoscorites and carbonatites of Kola Peninsula. Vestnik MGTU.
  55. (1994). Nd and Sr isotope signatures of the Khibiny and Lovozero agpaitic centres, doi
  56. (1998). New evidence of the duration of alkaline magmatism of the Kola region (Russia) based on Rb-Sr and U-Pb isotope data.
  57. (2003). New mineralogical and geochemical data on the Vuorijarvi ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite complex (Kola region, NW Russia). Periodico di Mineralogia, Vol LXXII,
  58. (1999). New Rb-Sr data for Kola alkaline province.
  59. (1999). Origin of clinopyroxenite, phoscorite and carbonatite of the Palaeozoic Seblyavr massif, north-western Russia: evidence from Rb-Sr data.
  60. (2000). Palaeozoic activation in the northeastern Fennoscandian Shield: Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isochron dating of initial volcanics and final dyke pulses of magmatism.
  61. (2002). Palaeozoic processes of plume-lithosphere interaction in the Northeast Baltic Shield: prolongation, volumes, conditions of magma generation. In: F.P. Mitrofanov (Ed.) Geology and raw materials of the Kola Peninsula.
  62. (1962). Palaeozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Kola Peninsula. In:
  63. (1998). Perovskite in the rocks of the ijolite-urtite arc of the Khibiny massif.
  64. (1996). Petrogenesis of Devonian lamprophyre and carbonatite minor intrusions, doi
  65. (2000). Petrological and geochemical (trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes) characteristics of the Paleozoic Kovdor ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion (Kola Peninsula, doi
  66. (1976). Petrology and geochemistry of alkalineultramafic dykes and kimberlites.
  67. (1975). Petrology of the Khibiny alkaline massif.
  68. (1972). Petrology of the Lovozero alkaline massif. Nauka Leningrad. 296p (in
  69. (1989). Phase diagram of part of the system larnite-forsterite-nepheline-quartz (extended basalt tetrahedron) at 1atm. Apatity: Kola Science Centre Publication.
  70. (1984). Phases of formation and age of diatremes of the Onega Peninsula.
  71. (1994). Plutonic mineral assemblages in Palaeozoic dikes and explosion pipes of the Alkaline Province of the Baltic Shield.
  72. (1997). Precise U-Th-Pb chronology of carbonatites and phoscorites: problems related to extreme elemental fractionation and possible solutions using multimineral approach.
  73. (2000). Proterozoic zircon ages from lower crustal granulite xenoliths, Kola Peninsula, Russia: evidence for crustal growth and reworking. doi
  74. (2000). Rapid kimberlite ascent and the significance of Ar-Ar ages in xenolith phlogopites. doi
  75. (2001). Rare earth pegmatites in carbonatites. doi
  76. (1996). Rhombohedral carbonates from carbonatites of the Khibiny massif,
  77. (1980). Riphean alkaline-magmatism in the zone of the Kandalaksha graben.
  78. (1998). Scandium resources and hydrothermal phosphate mineralization of the Kovdor carbonatite-phoscorite complex. Extended abstract of Ph.D. dissertation.
  79. (2001). Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr age determination of Yermakovskaya-7 kimberlite pipe, Tyersky Bereg, Kola region. In: SVEKALAPKO 6th workshop abstracts.
  80. (1995). Sr and Nd isotope data of apatite, calcite and dolomite as indicators of source, and the relationships of phoscorites and carbonatites from the Kovdor massif, Kola peninsula, doi
  81. (1974). The age of the Sokli carbonatite, Finland, and some relationships of the North Atlantic alkaline igneous province.
  82. (1965). The Caledonian complex of ultrabasic, alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the Kola Peninsula and northern Karelia.
  83. (1993). The composition of primary carbonate melts and their evolution through wall-rock reaction in the mantle. doi
  84. (1998). The continuum of primary carbonatitic-kimberlitic melt compositions in equilibrium with lherzolite: data from the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2 at 6 GPa. doi
  85. (1998). The evolution of terrestrial volatiles: A view from helium, neon, argon and nitrogen isotope modelling. doi
  86. (1988). The geological basis for mineral-technological mapping at the Kovdor ore deposit. doi
  87. (1993). The Kola Alkaline Province of the CIS and Finland: Precise Rb-Sr ages define 380-360 Ma age range for all magmatism. doi
  88. (2001). The Kovdor phlogopite deposit, doi
  89. (2000). The morphology and internal structure of the Kola alkaline intrusions, NE Fennoscandian shield: 3D density modelling and geological implications. doi
  90. (1980). The petrography, mineralogy and petrochemistry of the Sokli carbonatite massif, northern Finland.
  91. (1984). The Problems of Mineralogy and Petrology of Carbonatites.
  92. (1989). The spatial and temporal distribution of carbonatites.
  93. (2000). The system CaO-MgO-SiO2-CO2 at 1 GPa, metasomatic wehrlites, and primary carbonatitic magmas. doi
  94. (2001). The Turiy Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia: Isotopic and Geochemical Evidence for Multi-source Evolution. doi
  95. (1997). The Turiy Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia: Open-system disequil;ibrium. doi
  96. (1963). To the deep structure of the Khibiny and Lovozero plutons. In:
  97. (1994). Unique Palaeozoic intrusions of the Kola Peninsula.
  98. (2001). Unusual rocks and mineralisation in a new carbonatite complex at Kandaguba, doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.