Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Characteristics of muscle activation patterns at the ankle in stroke patients during walking.

By T.A. Stone


Stroke causes impairment of the sensory and motor systems; this can lead to difficulties in walking and participation in society. For effective rehabilitation it is important to measure the essential characteristics of impairment and associate these with the nature of disability. Efficient gait requires a complex interplay of muscles. Surface electromyography(sEMG) can be used to measure muscle activity and to observe disruption to this interplay \ud after stroke. Yet, classification of this disruption in stroke patients has not been achieved. It is hypothesised that features identified from the sEMG signal can be used to classify underlying impairments. A clinically viable gait analysis system has been developed, integrating an in-house wireless sEMG system synchronised with bilateral video and inertial orientation sensors. Signal processing techniques have been extended and implemented, appropriate for use with sEMG. These techniques have focussed on frequency domain features using wavelet analysis and muscle activation patterns using principal component analysis. The system has been used to measure gait from stroke patients and un-impaired subjects. Characteristic patterns of activity from the ankle musculature were defined using \ud principal component analysis of the linear envelope. Patients with common patterns of tibialis anterior activity did not necessarily share common patterns of gastrocnemius or soleus activity. Patients with similar linear envelope patterns did not always present with the same kinematic profiles. The relationship between observable impairments, \ud kinematics and sEMG is seen to be complex and there is therefore a need for a multidimensional view of gait data in relation to stroke impairment. The analysis of instantaneous mean frequency and time-frequency has revealed additional periods of activity not obvious in the linear or raw signal representation. Furthermore, characteristic calf activity was identified that may relate to abnormal reflex activity. This has provided additional information with which to group characteristic muscle activity. An evaluation of the co-activation of gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles using a sub-band filtering technique revealed three groups; those with distinct co-activation, those with little co-activation and those with continuous activity in the antagonistic pair across the stride. Signal features have been identified in sEMG recordings from stroke patients whilst walking extending current signal processing techniques. Common features of the sEMG and movement have been grouped creating a decision matrix. These results have contributed to the field of clinical measurement and diagnosis because interpretation of this decision matrix is related to underlying impairment. This has provided a framework \ud from which subsequent studies can classify characteristic patterns of impairment within the stroke population; and thus assist in the provision of rehabilitative interventions

Topics: med
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1987). 179 Muscle Activation Patterns During Walking References
  2. (1994). 180' Muscle Activation Patterns During Walking References 8 Biomedicine and Health (BIOMED 2)1994-1998. hftp: //cordis.
  3. (1997). 181 Muscle Activation Patterns During Walking References
  4. (1952). 182 Muscle Activation Patterns During Walking References 8
  5. (1997). 183 Muscle Activation Patterns During Walking References
  6. (1979). 185 Muscle Activation Patterns During Walking References 8
  7. (2003). 187 Muscle Activation Patterns During Walking References 8
  8. (1995). A body-worn gait analysis system for evaluating herniplegic gait. doi
  9. A clinical guide to asses the role of lower limb extensor overactivity In herniplegic gait disorders. doi
  10. (1996). A comparison of computer-based methods for the determination of onset of muscle contraction using electromyography. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophvsioloov/Electromvouraohv and Motor Control,, doi
  11. (1996). A Comparitive analysis of various EMG pattern recognition methods. doi
  12. (1999). A hybrid approach to EMG pattern analysis for classification of arm movements using statistical and fuzzy techniques. Med Eno Phys, doi
  13. (1998). A kinematic comparison of overground and treadmill walking. Clin Biornech (Bristol. doi
  14. (2002). A new method of using heart rate to represent energy expenditure: the Total Heart Beat Index. doi
  15. (2002). A new surface electromyography analysis method to determine spread of muscle fiber conduction velocities.
  16. (2002). A novel algorithm to remove electrical cross-talk between surface EMG recordings and Its application to the measurement of short4erm synchronisation doi
  17. (1999). A Practical Gait Analysis System Using Gyroscopes. doi
  18. (1998). A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis. doi
  19. (1995). A Review of Kinetic Parameters In Human Walking. In:
  20. (1998). A Statistical method for the measurement of muscle activation Intervals from surface myoelectric signal during gait. doi
  21. (2000). A test of a dual central pattern generator hypothesis for subcortical control of locomotion. doi
  22. (1989). A Theory for MultiresolutionSignal Decomposition: The Wavelet Representation.
  23. (1999). A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing, doi
  24. (2002). Accelerometer and rate gyroscope measurement of kinematics: an Inexpensive alternative to optical motion analysis system. doi
  25. (1981). Activation of paralysed leg flexors and extensors during gait in patients after stroke.
  26. (2006). Adaptive conditioning of skeletal muscle In a large animal model (Sus domesticus). doi
  27. (1995). Advances In processing of myoelectric signals part 1. doi
  28. (1995). Advances In processing of myoelectric signals part 2. doi
  29. (2003). Agreement between physiotherapists on quality of movement rated via videotape. Clinical Rehabilitation 17, doi
  30. (1990). Amplitude modulation of the human quadriceps tendon jerk reflex during gait. Exp Brain Res, 82(l), doi
  31. (1999). An effective algorithm for quick fractal analysis of movement biosignals.
  32. (1978). An optimality criterion for processing electromyographic (EMG) signals relating to human locomotion. doi
  33. (1997). Analysis of electromyographic signals using the "EIVIGLAB" software.
  34. (1998). Analyzing Surface Myoelectric Signals Recorded During Isokinetic Contractions. doi
  35. (2005). Application of a Neuro-Fuzzy Network for Gait Event Detection Using Electromyography in the Child with Cerebral Palsy. doi
  36. (2003). Application of Complex Wavelets for EIVIG Analysis During Gait Of Asymptomatic and Pathological Subjects. doi
  37. (1994). Assessment of Asymetric gait In Hemlplegla using electromyographic phasic activity. Biomedical Engineering ADDlication.
  38. (1999). Autoregressive and cepstral analyses of motor unit action potentials. doi
  39. (2006). Baumann Lecture: Measurement Error In Clinical Gait Analysis: A Thing of the Past? In: doi
  40. (2005). Biomechanical approaches applied to the lower and upper limb for the measurement of spasticity: a systematic review of the literature. Disabil Rehabil. doi
  41. (2003). Biornechanics and muscle coordination of human walking: part 11: lessons from dynamical simulations and clinical Implications.
  42. (1991). Central nervous pathways underlying synchronization of human motor unit firing studied during voluntary contractions.
  43. (2003). Changes in EIVIG signals for the muscle tibialis anterior while running barefoot or with shoes resolved by non-linearly scaled wavelets. doi
  44. (1993). Changes in motor unit synchronization following central nervous lesions in man.
  45. (2004). Characterisation of the quadriceps stretch reflex during the transition from swing to stance phase of human walking. doi
  46. (1995). Characteristics of motor unit discharge In subjects with hemiparesis. doi
  47. (1999). Classification of the myoelectric signal using time-frequency based representations. doi
  48. (2005). Clinical Gait Analysis: Theory and Practice, doi
  49. (1991). Clustering analysis and pattern discrimination of EMG linear envelopes. doi
  50. (1998). Coactivation at the ankle during gait on the non-paretic limb of persons with herniperesis.
  51. (2000). Coactivation during gait as an adaptive behavior after stroke. doi
  52. (1987). Colledge of physicians, 2000, National Clinical Guidlines for Stroke
  53. (1994). Colledge of physicians, 2004, National Clinical Guldlines for Stroke 2ed London, National Instruments.
  54. (2000). Comparison of algorithms for estimation of EMG variables during voluntary isometric contractions. doi
  55. (2005). Comparison of Fourier and wavelet transform procedures for examining the mechanomyographic and electromyographic frequency domain responses during fatiguing Isokinetic muscle actions of the biceps brachil. doi
  56. (1992). Computer algorithms to characterize Individual subject EMG profiles during gait.
  57. (1996). Concurrent validity of observational gait analysis using the vicon motion analysis system. doi
  58. (2000). Contribution of passive stiffness to ankle plantarflexor moment during gait after stroke. doi
  59. (1990). Correlation of knee extensor muscle torque and spasticity with gait speed In patients with stroke.
  60. (1991). Dependence of the mean power frequency of the electromyogram on muscle force and fibre type. Acta Physiol SEand(142), doi
  61. (2000). Design and testing of a genetic algorithm neural network in the assessment of gait patterns. Med Eng Phys 22(l), doi
  62. (1999). Detection of hidden rhythms in surface EMG signals with a non-linear time-series tool. doi
  63. (1993). Determinents of muscle function In spastic lower extremity. Clin Orthoo Relat Res,
  64. (1979). Different types of distributed motor control in gait of herniperetic patients. doi
  65. (1991). Disuse of anterior tibial muscle during locomotion and Increased proportion of type 11 fibres in hemiplegia. doi
  66. (1990). Dynamic electromyography. 1. Numerical representation using principal component analysis. doi
  67. (2005). Dynamic Programming and Diagnostic Classification. doi
  68. (1994). Dynamical assessment of physiological systems and states using recurrence plot stratergles.
  69. (2004). Effect of gait cycle selection on EIVIG analysis during walking In adults and children with gait pathology. Gait Posture 20(l), doi
  70. (1992). Effective Health Care bulletins: Stroke rehabilitation,
  71. (1999). Electromyogram amplitude estimation with adaptive smoothing window length. doi
  72. (1984). Electromyographic amplitude normalization methods: improving their sensitivity as diagnostic tools in gait analysis.
  73. (1978). Electromyographic analysis of equinovarus following stroke. doi
  74. (1987). Electromyographic gait assesment, part 1: Adult EIVIG profiles and walking speed.
  75. (1994). Electromyographic Signal Frequency Analysis In Evaluating Muscle Fatigue of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease. doi
  76. (1976). Electromyographic temporal analysisof gait: normal human locomotion.
  77. Electromyography reliability In maximal and submaximal Isometric contractions.
  78. (1990). Electromyograrn power spectral frequencies associated with motor unit recruitment stratergies. doi
  79. (2001). Embedding Space Normalisation In Recurrence Quantification Analysis of EMG. In: doi
  80. (2003). EMG frequency content changes with increasing forceand during fatigue in the quadraceps femoris muscle of men and women.
  81. (1987). EMG profiles during normal walking: stride to stride and Intersubject variability. doi
  82. (1998). EMO pattern recognition based on artificial Intelligence techniques. doi
  83. (2001). Enhancing the ability of gait analyses to differentiate between groups: Scalling gait data to body size. doi
  84. (2005). Estimation of the muscle fibre semi-length under varying joint positions on the basis of non-invasively extracted motor unit action potentials. doi
  85. (2003). Evaluation of the forearm EMG signal features for the control of a prosthetic hand. doi
  86. (1982). Evaluation pertinant to the gait of children myelomerningocele. Prosthet Orthot In
  87. (1996). Evidence of deterministic chaos
  88. (2004). Five basic muscle activation patterns account for muscle activity during human locomotion. doi
  89. (1974). Functional ambulation profile.
  90. (1987). Gait abnormalities In herniplegia: Their correction by ankle-foot orthoses.
  91. (2002). Gait Analysis an Introduction, 3rd ed.
  92. (1992). Gait Analysis: Normal and Pathological Function. doi
  93. (1995). Gait Analysis: Theory and Application,
  94. (1981). Gait control In herniparesis.
  95. (2005). Gait differences between Individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis and non-disabled controls at matched speeds. doi
  96. (1995). Gait Parameters following Stroke: A Practical Assessment.
  97. (1996). Gait pattern In the early recovery period after stroke.
  98. (1990). Gating and reversal of reflexes In ankle muscles during human walking. doi
  99. (2004). Gyroscope Control of Planterflexors for Push-Off of Stroke Subjects. In:
  100. (1996). Herniparetic gait following stroke. Part 1: Characteristics. doi
  101. (1983). Herniplegic gait analysis of temporal variables.
  102. (1997). Herniplegic gait: relationship between walking speed and other temporal parameters. doi
  103. (1999). High- or low-technology measurements of energy expenditure In clinical gait analysis? doi
  104. (2005). Human movement reconstruction from video shot by a single stationary camera. doi
  105. (1994). Human Walking, 2nd ed.
  106. (1983). Hypertension In
  107. (2003). Identification of stroke In the community: a comparison of three methods.
  108. (2001). Indices to describe different muscle activation patterns, Identified during treadmill walking, doi
  109. (2002). Influence of anatomical, physical, and detection-system parameters on surface EMG. doi
  110. (1995). Influence of Isometric loading on biceps EMG dynamics as assessed by linear and nonlinear tools.
  111. (2001). Influence of motoneuron firing synchronization on SEMG characteristics In dependence of electrode poiftion.
  112. (2004). Influence of muscle fibre shortening on estimates of conduction velocity and spectral frequencies from surface electromyographic signals. doi
  113. (1998). Influence of smoothing window length on electromyogram amplitude estimates. doi
  114. (1998). Initial motor unit recruitment in patients with spastic hemiplegia.
  115. (2000). Intensity analtsis In time-frequency space of surface myoelectric signals by wavelet of specified resolution. doi
  116. (2003). Interpretation of EMG changes with fatigue: facts, pitfalls, and fallacies. doi
  117. (1992). Interpretation of EMG spectral alterations and alteration Indexes at sustained contraction.
  118. (2005). Investigation Into the Role of the Bloengineer. In:
  119. (2002). Is the observational gait scale reliable..
  120. (1986). Is there a "normal' profile of EMG activity doi
  121. ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate system of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion-part 1: ankle, hip, and spine. doi
  122. (2005). ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate systems of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion-Part ll: shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand. doi
  123. (1984). Kinematic and EMG patterns during slow, free, and fast walking. doi
  124. (1994). Kinematics of normal human walking. Ln: Human Walking,
  125. (2000). Major role for sensory feedback In soleus EMG activity In the stance phase of walking In man. doi
  126. (2005). Markerless Motion Capture with a Single Video Camera. In: Blomechanics of the lower limb I Health, Disease and Rehabilitation,
  127. (1998). Measurement of impared muscle function of the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles In spastic herniplegia: a preliminary study.
  128. (2001). Mechanisms of disturbed motor control In ankle weakness during gait after stroke. doi
  129. (2002). Motoneuronal drive during human walking. Brain Res Brain Res Revl 40(1-3),
  130. (1999). Motor Patterns In Walking.
  131. (2001). Motor unit physiology: some unresolved Issues. doi
  132. (2003). Multidimensional EMG-based assessment of walking dynamics. doi
  133. (2004). Multivarlate AR modeling of electromyography for the classification of upper arm movements. doi
  134. (1987). Muscle Activation Patterns During Walking References
  135. Muscle Activation Patterns During Walking References 8
  136. (2006). Muscle Activation Patterns During Walking References 8 Mathworks
  137. Muscle strength and balance In post-stroke patients. doi
  138. (1997). Muscle, reflex and central components In the control of the ankle joint In healthy and spastic man.
  139. (1979). Muscles Alive - Their function revealed by electromyography, 4th ed,
  140. (2004). National electronic Library for Health. http: //www. nelh. nhs. uk/. og/oWom
  141. (1998). Neural control of locomotion; The central pattern generator from cats to humans. doi
  142. (1998). Neural control of locomotion: sensory control of the central pattern generator and Its relation to treadmill training. doi
  143. (2005). Neurophysiological methods for the assessment of spasticity: the Hoffmann reflex, the tendon reflex, and the stretch reflex. Disabil Rehabil, doi
  144. (1983). Normal Impaired muscle stiffness In gait: a new hypothesis. doi
  145. (2003). Normalisation of gait EMGs: a re-examination. doi
  146. (1989). Observational Gait Analysis Handbook, doi
  147. (1989). Observational Gait Analysis Handbook.
  148. (1992). of Health and Human Services (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health),
  149. (1998). Office of National Statistics,
  150. (1999). Optimal rejection of movement artefacts; from myoelectric signals by means of a wavelet filtering procedure. doi
  151. (1984). Optimization of an adaptive myoelectric filter. In:
  152. (1982). Pathoechanics, gait deviations and treatment of the rhuernatoid foot.
  153. (1984). Pathologic Gait Diagnosis with Computer-Averaged Electromyographic Profiles.
  154. (1977). Pattern recognition of multiple EMG signals applied to the description of human gait. doi
  155. Patterns of pathological firing In human motor units. doi
  156. (1993). Physiological Cost Indexof Walking In Able-Bodied Adolescents and Adults. Clinical Rehabilitation 7, doi
  157. (1999). Plantarflexor weakness as a limiting factor of gait speed In stroke subjects and the compensating role of hip flexors. doi
  158. (2000). Prediction of walking function In stroke patients with Initial lower extremity paralysis: the Copenhagen Stroke Study. doi
  159. (2002). Prevalence of spasticity post stroke. doi
  160. (2000). Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 9'h ed, doi
  161. (2004). Quantification of human motion: gait analysis-benefits and limitations to Its application to clinical problems. doi
  162. (2005). Quantification of the dynamic properties of EMG patterns during gait doi
  163. (2001). Recent advancements in the analysis of dynamic EMG data. doi
  164. (1998). Recovery of walking function in stroke patients after minimal rehabilitation. doi
  165. (1995). Recovery of walking function In stroke patients: the Copenhagen Stroke Study. doi
  166. (1995). Relationship between impairments and gait performance after stroke: a summary of relevant research. doi
  167. (2003). Relationship between muscle length and moment arm on EIVIG activity of human triceps surae muscle. doi
  168. (1995). Reliability of Physiological Cost Index Measurements In Walking Normal SUbjects Using Steady-state, Non -steady-state and Post-exercise Heart Rate Recording. doi
  169. (1989). Repeatability of kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data in normal adult gait. doi
  170. (1981). Representing and Clustering electromyographic gait patterns with multivarlate techniques. Medical and Biological Engineering and cornguting 19, doi
  171. (2002). Review of observational gait analysis doi
  172. (2002). RIVCAM: a simple video-based kinematic analysis for clinical disorders of gait. doi
  173. (1991). SEPIVAC: a community-based study of stroke Incidence in doi
  174. (1991). SEPIVAC: a community-based study of stroke Incidence in Umbria, Italy. doi
  175. (1977). Signal processing for the multistate myoelectric channel. doi
  176. (2005). Silhouette-Based Human Motion Estimation. In: Blomechanics of the lower limb
  177. (2004). Spasticity After Stroke: Its Occurences and association with Motor Impairments and Activity Limitations. Stroke 35, doi
  178. (1998). Spasticity and 'spastic' gait In children with cerebral palsy. doi
  179. (1996). Spasticity and muscle contracture following stroke. doi
  180. (2005). Spasticity: clinical perceptions, neurological realities and meaningful measurement. Disabil Rehabil 27(1-2), doi
  181. (2002). Spatio-temporal parameters of gait measuredby an ambulatory system using miniture gyroscopes. doi
  182. (1997). Spatio-temporal representation of multichannel EMG firing patterns and Its clinical applications. doi
  183. (2000). Spectral compression of the electromyographic signal due to decreasing muscle fiber conduction velocity. doi
  184. (1998). Spectral electromyographic fatigue analysis of back muscles In healthy adult women compared with men. doi
  185. (2001). Spinal circuitry of sensorimotor control of locomotion. doi
  186. (1991). Strength deficits also predict gait performance In patients with stroke. Percept Mot Skills 73(l), doi
  187. (1986). Stroke a clinical approach. doi
  188. (2003). Study on Relationship Between Initial Stroke Severity and Recovery of Mobility Function In Acute Stroke Inpatients. The Indian
  189. (1996). Supraspinal and segmental interactions. doi
  190. (2003). Surface electromyography analysis for variable gait. doi
  191. (1985). Surface EMG profiles during different walking cadences In humans. doi
  192. (2001). Surface EMG shows distinct populations of muscle activity when measured during sustained sub-maximal exercise. doi
  193. (1980). Symposium synopsis. In:
  194. (1993). Synchronization of Motor-unit firings In several human muscles.
  195. (1996). Technology assessment: Dynamic electromyography In gait and motion analysis. doi
  196. (1999). Templates and anchors: neuromechanical hypotheses of legged locomotion on land.
  197. (2003). Temporal components of the motor patterns expressed by the human spinal cord reflect foot kinematics.
  198. (1995). The application of cepstral coefficients and maximum likelihood method In EMG pattern recognition. doi
  199. (1978). The assessment of the Internal rotation gait In cerebral palsy: an electromyographic gait analysis. Clin Orthoo Relat Res(132), doi
  200. (1990). The blomechanics and motor control of human gait, 2nd ed,
  201. (1984). The Clinical use of surface EMG.. doi
  202. (2003). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, doi
  203. (2004). The extraction of neural strategies from the surface EIVIG. doi
  204. (2002). The Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Recovery after Stroke: A Critical Review of Its Measurement Properties 10.1177/154596802401105171. doi
  205. (1995). The Input-output relations of skeletal muscle. doi
  206. (1979). The objective measurement of physical performance with long term ambulatory physiological survallance equipment (LAPSE). In:
  207. (1999). The performance of SEMG equipment used In different European laboratories. In:
  208. (1959). The phasic activity of the muscles of the lower extremity and the effect of tendon transfer.
  209. (2002). The reliability and validity of the observational gait scale in children who have spastic diplegia. doi
  210. (2005). The search for patients with abnormalities bigger thanour measurement errors. In: Biomechanics of the lower limb
  211. (2001). The short-time transform and muscle fatigue assessment In dynamic contractions. doi
  212. (2003). The status of gait assessment among physiotherapists doi
  213. (1999). The Traditional Fourier Approach to EMG AnalysisDuring Voluntary or Evoked Sustained Contractions. In:
  214. (1997). The use of surface electromyography in blornechanics.
  215. (2005). Theoretical and methodological considerations In the measurement of spasticity. doi
  216. (2002). Time-frequency and principal-component methods for the analysis of EMGs recorded during a mildly fatiguing exercise on a cycle ergometer. doi
  217. (1999). Unsupervided pattern recognition for the classification of EMG signals. doi
  218. (2001). Use of cluster analysis for gait pattern classification of patients following stroke. doi
  219. (2003). Use of videotape to assess mobility In a controlled randomized crossover trial of physiotherapy In chronic multiple schlerosis. doi
  220. (1998). Using factor analysis to identify neuromuscular synergies during treadmill walking. doi
  221. (2003). Validation of the wavelet spectral estimation tchnique In Biceps Brachii and Brachioradialls fatigue assessment during prolonged low-level static and dynamic contractions. doi
  222. (1998). Visual gait analysis: the development of a clinical assessment and scale. Clinical Rehabilitation 12, doi
  223. (1994). Visual Gait assessment of herniplegic gait following stroke: pilot study.
  224. Walking speed as a basis for normal and abnormal gait measurements. doi
  225. (2006). Wavelet Toolbox Ver. 6.0. In:
  226. (1989). Weakness In patients with herniparesis. doi
  227. (2002). What are the components of effective stroke unit care? doi
  228. (1991). Work and power In gait of stroke patients.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.