Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Community engagement with local associations and in the development of tourism: a case study of residents of three parishes in the Peneda Gerês National Park.

By Carlos de Oliveira Fernandes

Abstract

The Peneda Geres National Park situated in northern Portugal has many characteristics associated with remote locations: rural depopulation, low population density, homogeneous lifestyles, little economic diversity, high quality natural environment, and communities structured on a feudal or hierarchical set-up, with the church, traditionally, as the centre of influence. Traditionally, cooperation within and between communities revolved around agricultural activities that required a joint effort. Agricultural activities that required a high level of\ud coordination resulted in the practically single form of association between residents. Residents still have strong cultural ties to nature, partially because of their reliance on sources of food and some income. There is evidence to suggest that community development with a significant emphasis on tourism may be an important element in the survival and revival of the economy of this region as traditional subsistence agriculture continues to decline.\ud The promotion of small-scale tourism is intuitively perceived as a suitable form of economic development for rural areas. However, as communities turn to tourism as\ud the means to raising income, employment and living standards the diverse impacts from tourism and its associated development affect the local population. A lack of community capacity and a lack of community understanding of tourism and its impacts have been identified as barriers to effective tourism development in this remote rural region. The overall purpose of this study is twofold. First, to critically examme and compare the attitudes to involvement, in and perceptions of, local associations of the residents of selected rural communities in the Peneda Geres National Park. Secondly, to determine resident perceptions of the contribution of local associations\ud and the National Park Authority to the tourism development process. A survey in the form of a structured face-to-face interview was undertaken to analyse the perceptions of members of the communities toward tourism development by identifying the obstacles and impediments to community\ud participation. A total of 346 usable questionnaires were collected using a randomly selected sample of residents in the parishes of Castro de Laboreiro, Entre-Ambosos-\ud Rios and Vilar da Veiga. These three selected parishes illustrate the variety of experiences faced by communities involved with tourism. Findings from the interviews were identified which serve to illustrate participatory\ud development as a complex and difficult though essential for community development in remote rural areas. Based on the findings, several recommendations on structural policies and advice on approach and issues in terms of research are\ud made

Topics: tou
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk:13013

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (1994). 0 Turismo em Portugal-subsidios para o seu conhecimento, in Cadernos Turismo e Sociedade, Universidade de
  2. 1), Community Integration in Tourism: The Case of Taquile Island, Peru, doi
  3. 1), Poor people, poor places, and poor health: the mediating role of social networks and social capital. doi
  4. 1), Tourism Development: Assessing Social Gains and Losses,
  5. (2000). 325 NACAA-National Association of Community Action Agencies
  6. (2005). A benefit segmentation of tourists in rural areas: A Scottish perspective, doi
  7. (1959). A Familism Scale. doi
  8. (1995). A flawed implementation of sustainable tourism: the experience of Akamas, doi
  9. (1991). A global sense of place. Marxim Today,
  10. (2000). A Matrix Model for Resident attitudes and Behaviors in a Rapidly Changing Tourist Area, doi
  11. (1998). A rural tourism development model,
  12. (1999). A Sketch of a Geographic Theory of Morality, doi
  13. (1990). A strategy for tourism and sustainable development, doi
  14. (2002). A structural equation model of residents' attitudes for tourism development, doi
  15. (1993). A Tale of Tourism in Two Cities, doi
  16. (1997). A Theoretical Analysis of Host Community Resident Reactions to Tourism,
  17. (2002). A Trip too Far: Ecotourism, Politics and Exploitation. doi
  18. (1991). A view of Geography. doi
  19. (1999). ADERE-PG-Associagdo de Desenvolvimento das Regi6es do Parque Nacional da Peneda Geres
  20. ADERE-PG-Associaýdo de Desenvolvimento das Regi6es do Parque Nacional da Peneda Geres
  21. (1981). After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, doi
  22. (1995). Agrarian Development in Beira Alta: The Miniftindia System,
  23. (1978). Agrarian Structures and recent rural movements in Portugal, doi
  24. (2006). Agricultura portuguesa em mudanp profunda,
  25. (1991). Agriculturally Based Leisure Attractions,
  26. (1997). All Kids are Our Kids, doi
  27. (1992). Alternative tourism: the thin edge of the wedge,
  28. (1994). An Analysis of Ecotourism's Economic Contribution to Conservation and Development
  29. (2005). An empirical study of the impact of question structure on recipient attitude during knowledge sharing,
  30. (1998). An Essay on Social Capital. Reflections on a Concept Linking Social Sciences, Working
  31. (1997). An Exploratory Examination of Urban Tourism Impact, with Reference to Residents Attitudes, doi
  32. (1984). An industrial and spatial analysis of new firm forination in Ireland, doi
  33. (1997). An overview of the sustainable tourism debate and the scope and content of the book,
  34. (1996). Analysing other researchers' data,
  35. (2000). Approaches to sustainable tourism planning and community participation. The Case of the Hope Valley, In
  36. (2003). Aqualculture: the ecological issues, doi
  37. (2003). Arguments for community participation in the tourism development process, doi
  38. (1997). Assessing the Representativeness of the 1992 British Crime Survey: The Impact of Sampling Error and Response Biases", doi
  39. (1994). Attitudes and Perceptions Toward Tourism and Rural Regional Development, doi
  40. (1935). Attitudes,
  41. (2007). Beyond authenticity and commodification, doi
  42. (2006). Beyond Mistrust and Competition-The Role of Social and Personal Bonding Processes in Sustaining Livelihoods of Rural Tourism Businesses: A Case of the Peak District National Park, doi
  43. (1998). Beyond the rhetoric of sustainable tourism? doi
  44. (2004). Beyond the Tyranny of the "New "? An explanatory model of styles of Flemish Red Cross Volunteering, paper presýnted at the ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops
  45. (1974). Big Business and the State, doi
  46. (1999). Biodiversity, conservatism and sustainable development: Principles andpractices with Asian examples. doi
  47. (1999). Bonds and Bridges: Social capital and poverty. World Bank, doi
  48. (2007). Book Review of doi
  49. (1990). book review of C. Downs
  50. (1999). Borders, border regions and territoriality: Contradictory meanings, changing significance, doi
  51. (2005). Bottom up and top down: Analysis of participatory processes for sustainability indicator identification as a pathway to community empowerment and sustainable environmental management, doi
  52. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. doi
  53. (2002). Building Social Capital for Rural Enterprise Development: Three Case Studies in the United States,
  54. (1994). Capitalism and Development, doi
  55. (2000). Case Studies,
  56. (1984). Case Study Research: Design and Methods.
  57. (1979). Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure and Contradiction in Social Analysis, doi
  58. (2002). Challenges of sustainable tourism development in the developing world: the case of Turkey, doi
  59. (1993). Citizenship and the place of the public sphere: Law, community, and political culture in the transition to democracy, doi
  60. (2003). Citizenship, community and participation in small towns: a case study of regeneration partnerships, doi
  61. (2002). Civic community in small town USA". doi
  62. (1997). Classics in Environmental Studies. An Overview of Classic Texts in Environmental Studies. doi
  63. (1989). Collaborating: Finding Common Ground for Multiparty Problems. doi
  64. (1999). Collaboration and Partnerships for Sustainable Tourism, doi
  65. (1998). Collaboration in the emerging world of "universal higher education", Higher Education Council,
  66. (1995). Collaboration Theory and Community Tourism Planning, doi
  67. (1994). Collaborative Leaderhip. San Francisco: doi
  68. (2005). CollaboratIve policyrnaking - Local sustainable projects,
  69. (1996). Committee doi
  70. (1997). Common Purpose: Strengthening Families and Neighbourhoods to Rebuild America. doi
  71. (1990). Commonplaces: Community Ideology and Identity in American Culture. doi
  72. (1976). Communion, communialism, class and community action: the sources of new urban politics,
  73. (1999). Communities of Memory: On Identity Memory, and Debt, doi
  74. (2000). Communities of trust: Public action and social capital in comparative perspective. Doctoral thesis,
  75. (1997). Communities: Virtual vs. doi
  76. (2002). Community adaptation to tourism: comparisons between Rotorua and Kaikoura, doi
  77. (1982). Community and Social Change in America. doi
  78. (1994). Community attachment and attitude toward tourism development, doi
  79. (2007). Community Development through Tourism, doi
  80. (2006). Community development through tourism. doi
  81. (2003). Community involvement in tourism infrastructure-the case of the Strahan Visitor Centre, doi
  82. (2001). Community issues and Resident Opinions of Tourism, doi
  83. (1992). Community Organizing and Development. doi
  84. (1987). Community Participation in development projects: the World Bank Experience. doi
  85. (2003). Community Participation in Ecotourism Benefits: The Link to Conservation Practices and Perspectives, doi
  86. (1994). Community participation in tourism planning, doi
  87. (1990). Community participation: some realities, in Seminar on Community Participation in Service Provision for Township Development, University of the Witwatersrand,
  88. (2004). Community tourism planning a selfassessment instrument, doi
  89. (1998). Community Works: The Revival of Civil Society
  90. (1999). Community-Based Mountain Tourism: Practices for Linking Conservation with Enterprise, doi
  91. (2005). Community-based Tourism: The Significance of Social Capital,
  92. (1991). Community, market, state-and associations? The prospective contribution of interest governance to social order,
  93. (1987). Conceptual frameworks for bibliographic education: Theory to Practice.
  94. (2006). Conceptualizing Yield: Sustainable tourism management, doi
  95. (1986). Conclusion: Coming Forward and Taking Charge,
  96. (2007). Concurrent Validity of the Sustainable Tourism Attitude Scale, doi
  97. (1994). Conflicting Values About Federal Forests: doi
  98. (1988). Consensus Policy Formulation in Tourism: Measuring resident views via survey research,
  99. (1995). Consuming Places. doi
  100. (1979). Contemporary Portugal; the Revolution and its Antecedents, doi
  101. (1998). Cooperative tourism planning in a developing destination. doi
  102. (1995). Country village weekend breaks: experience in Wales, doi
  103. (1972). Cultural action for fteedom.
  104. (2002). Cultural differences between Asian tourist markets and Australian hosts: Part 1, doi
  105. (2003). Cultural rural tourism: Evidence from Canada, doi
  106. (1998). Culture moves. - Ideas, activism, and changing values. doi
  107. (1996). Culture, Tourism and the Sustainability of Rural Areas
  108. (1990). d edition), doi
  109. (1995). Danger in the Comfort Zone,
  110. (2002). Defining, measuring and evaluating carrying capacity
  111. (2003). Destination communities: Structures, resources and types, doi
  112. (2000). Determinants of Market Competitiveness in an Environmentally Sustainable Tourism Industry, doi
  113. (1994). Developing a tourism impact attitude scale, doi
  114. (1998). Developing and testing a tourism impact scale, doi
  115. (2006). Developing ecotourism in First World, doi
  116. (1995). Developing the Environment. Problems and Management. doi
  117. (2005). Development of a tourism sustainability assessment procedure: a conceptual approach, doi
  118. (1998). Development sustainability through community participation.
  119. (2001). DGT-DirecVdo Geral do Turismo
  120. (1996). Dissonant Heritage: The management of the past as a resource in conflict. doi
  121. (2002). Does participation in voluntary associations contribute to social capital? The impact of intensity, scope, and type. doi
  122. (2005). Does rural tourism benefit from agriculture?, doi
  123. (1997). Does social capital have an economic pay-off.? A cross country investigation. doi
  124. (1988). Doing Secondary Analysis. London: Unwin Hyman. doi
  125. (1995). Doing your own research, doi
  126. (2002). Domestic tourism-a chance for regional development in Turkey?, doi
  127. (1986). Duplicate listing sampling bias in visitor surveys doi
  128. (1991). Ecology and Tourism, doi
  129. (2000). Ecotourism and economic incentives-an empirical approach, doi
  130. (1991). Ecotourism and its role in sustainable development,
  131. (1999). Ecotourism and the empowerment of local communities. doi
  132. (1999). Ecotourism: towards congruence between theory and practice, doi
  133. (2002). Effects of horseriding on national parks and other natural areas in Australia: Implications for management, doi
  134. (1988). Emigration and Household Structure in a Portuguese Parish, 1850-1920, doi
  135. (1999). Empirical Studies on Sustainability and the Rural Business Enterprise: Australian and New Zealand Perspectives,
  136. (1999). Empirical Studies on Sustainability and the Rural Business Enterprise: Australian and New Zealand Perspectives, Australia: International Geographical Union.
  137. (2003). Empowerment for sustainable tourism development, doi
  138. (1986). Empowerment of the poor,
  139. (2000). Endogenous development, social capital and social inclusion: perspectives from doi
  140. (1993). Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn,
  141. (1998). Enhancing Communities for Sustainability: A Travel Ecology Approach, Tourism Analysis,
  142. (1999). Entrepreneurial social infrastructure and locally initiated economic development in the non-metropolitan United States, doi
  143. (1993). Entrepreneurial Social Infrastructure: A Necessary Ingredient, doi
  144. (1987). Environmental planning for tourism, doi
  145. (1994). Epilogue: expanding the capital stock,
  146. (2002). Equity, management, power sharing and sustainability-issues of the "new tourism". doi
  147. (1980). ESRI-Econornic and Social Research Institute
  148. (2000). Establishing the Social Tourism Carrying Capacity for the Tourist Resorts of the East Coast of the Republic of Cyprus, doi
  149. (1987). Ethnographic Research: A Guide to General Conduct. doi
  150. (1984). Ethnography and qualitative design in educational research. doi
  151. (2006). Expected nature of community participation in tourism development, doi
  152. (2004). Factors predicting rural residents' support of tourism, doi
  153. (1994). Farm pluriactivity and rural policy --- some evidence from Wales, doi
  154. (1995). Farm Tourism, Gender and the Environment in Spain, doi
  155. (2006). FCT-Fundagdo para a Ci8ncia ea Tecnologia
  156. (1997). First report on Economic and Social Cohesion 1996, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
  157. (1985). Fishingfor Sustainability: the role of capacity building in development administration.
  158. (1977). Food First. doi
  159. (2006). Forging nature-based tourism policy issues: A case study in Pennsylvania, doi
  160. (1989). Fourth Generation Evaluation. doi
  161. (2007). From Culture Areas to Ethnoscapes: An Application to Tourism Development,
  162. (1996). From shareholders to stakeholders: critical issues for tourism marketers, doi
  163. (1991). From Tourist Attractions to Heritage Tourism, Kings Ripton:
  164. (1940). Fundamental Concepts of Sociology. Translated by Charles P. doi
  165. (1995). Gender and community tourism dependence level, doi
  166. (2003). Gendered Social Capital-A Case Study of Sports and Music Associations
  167. (2002). Generating Jobs in Regional Tasmania: a social capital approach. Final Report for Department of Transport and Regional Services.
  168. (1984). Geographical variation in the rate of formation of new manufacturing firms, doi
  169. (2002). Group solidarity as the product of collective action: Creation of solidarity in a population of injection drug users, doi
  170. (1991). Guest-host perceptions of rural tourism in England and Portugal,
  171. (1982). Guidelines for Socially Appropriate Tourism Development in British Columbia. doi
  172. (1984). Guilds and Civil Society doi
  173. (1997). Hano Geographicus: A Frameworkfor Action, Awareness and Moral Concern. doi
  174. (1997). Here we go, Eco, doi
  175. (1996). Heritage and Postmodern Tourism, doi
  176. (2002). Heritage Proximity and Resident Attitudes toward Tourism Development, doi
  177. (2005). Heritage, local communities and economic development, doi
  178. (1949). Hero with a Thousand Faces, doi
  179. (1987). History of Spain and Portugal, 2 vols.,
  180. (1999). Host perceptions of sociocultural impacts, doi
  181. (2003). Host. Attitudes Toward Tourism: an improved structural model, doi
  182. (1998). Identifying Participation in the Infon-nal Economy Using Survey Research Methods, doi
  183. (2002). Implementing STD on Small Island: Development and use of sustainable tourism development indicators in Samon, doi
  184. (1997). Implementing sustainable tourism development through citizen participation in the planning process,
  185. (1994). Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, method and applications,
  186. (1976). Inheritance, Land Tenure and Peasant Family Structure: A German Regional Comparison,
  187. (1999). Initiatives for developing textile crafts in the Alto Minho,
  188. (1997). Instituto Nacional de Estatistica, Estatisticas Demogr6ficas 2000,
  189. (1998). Interactional past and potential: The social construction of place attachment, doi
  190. (1991). Interrelationships between tourism and agriculture (France),
  191. (1972). Intra-European Migration and Sociocultural Change in Andalusian Agro-Town.
  192. (1975). Intra-European nugration during the past twenty years, doi
  193. (1978). Intra-European Return Migration and Rural Development: Lessons from the Spanish Case,
  194. (2005). Introduction to Social Research, 2 nd edition,
  195. (1990). Introduction to the Sociology of Development (2 nd edition),
  196. (2004). Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds?, doi
  197. (1992). Leadership for the Common Good. Tackling Public Problems in a Shared-Power World, doi
  198. (1990). Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life.
  199. (2002). Learning in Agriculture: Building social capital in island communities, Local Environment, doi
  200. (2000). Level of specialization and place attachment: An exploratory study of Whitewater Receptionists, doi
  201. (2000). Limits to community participation In the tourism development process in developing countries, doi
  202. (2000). Live long and prosper: collective action, social capital and social vision, doi
  203. (1999). Local Agenda 21 and Community Participation in Tourism Policy and Planning: Future or Fallacy. doi
  204. (2004). Local development, productive networks and training: alternative approaches to training and work for young people,
  205. (1986). Local institutional development: an analytical sourcebook with cases. doi
  206. (1984). Local organisations; Intermediaries in rural development, doi
  207. (1996). Local Sustainability: managing and planning ecologically soundplaces,
  208. (1990). Locality and Inequality. doi
  209. (1993). Looking Backward-A Critical Appraisal of Communitarian Thought, doi
  210. (1993). Loving Them to Death? Sustainable Tourism
  211. (1997). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. doi
  212. (1982). MAI-Ministerio da Administragdo Interna
  213. (1983). Mail and other self-administered questionnaires, doi
  214. (1993). Making Democracy Work. - Civic Traditions in Modern Italy, doi
  215. (1996). Managing ecotounsm: an opportunity spectrum approach, doi
  216. (1994). Managing growth in mountain tourism communities, doi
  217. (1999). Managing risk, shocks and opportunity in developing economies : The role of social capital, Development Research Group, The World Bank,
  218. (1989). Market Power: the Missing Element in Keynesian Economics,
  219. (2000). Mass tourism and the demand for protected natural areas: a travel cost approach. doi
  220. (1997). Measuring Health: A review of quality of life measurement scales, Second Edition,
  221. (1995). Measuring place attachment: More preliminary results. Paper presented at the
  222. (1987). Measuring residents' attachment levels in a host community, doi
  223. (1985). Measuring Satisfaction with Tourism, doi
  224. (1999). Measuring Social Capital: The Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement, paper to the European Society for Rural Sociology, Congress,
  225. (2002). Measuring Social Capital: Towards a standardised approach, paper presented at the
  226. (2001). Measuring Social Capital: Towards a theoretically informed measurement ftamework for researching social capital in family and community life, Research paper n'. 24, Australian Institute of Family Studies,
  227. (1995). Mediation, Citizen Empowerment and Transformational Politics. doi
  228. (1969). Migrants in Europe: Problems of Acceptance and Adjustment. doi
  229. (1981). Migration Decision MakingMultidisciplinary Approaches to Microlevel Studies in Developed and Developing Countries, doi
  230. (1995). Migrations and Cultures, doi
  231. (1997). Modeling Resident Attitudes Toward Tourism, doi
  232. (2007). Modelling environmental attitudes toward tourism, doi
  233. (1986). Models in Tourism Planning: Towards Integration of Theory and Practice, doi
  234. (1989). Modernization and the Family: The Case of Greece, doi
  235. (1966). Modernization and the Structure of Societies. doi
  236. (2000). NACAA-National Association of Community Action Agencies
  237. (1994). National and regional tourism planning, in a World Tourism Organisation (WTO) Publication.
  238. (2008). National report on RD policy design Portugal, Assessing the impact of rural development policies (incl.
  239. (1985). Nationale parken
  240. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry, doi
  241. (1978). nd edition), Cambrige: doi
  242. (2000). Neat Trends: current Issues in nature, eco and adventure tourism. doi
  243. (1999). Negotiating rural tourism development at a local level. A case study-Pisece,
  244. (2006). Networks, Conflict and Collaborative Communities, doi
  245. (2000). New 'rural lifestyle estates' doi
  246. (1994). New firms, small fin-ns and dead firms: spatial patterns and determinants in the United Kingdom, doi
  247. (1997). Non-agricultural microenterprise development among the Pennsylvania Amish -a new phenomenon, doi
  248. (1965). Obstacles to Development: A Classification and a Quasi-Vanishing Act, doi
  249. (1994). OECD--Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development doi
  250. (1995). On the need to re-conceptualise sustainable tourism development, doi
  251. (2002). Operationalizing sustainability in regional tourism planning: an application of the limits of acceptable change framework, doi
  252. (1991). Order without Law: How Neighbours Settle Disputes. doi
  253. (2001). Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development doi
  254. (1994). Organising Resources for Rural Tourism Development: The Importance of Leadership, Planning and Technical Assistance,
  255. (1985). Organizations and intensifications: campesino federations, rural livelihoods and agricultural technology in the Andes and Amazonia, World Development, doi
  256. (1999). Our national parks and the search for sustainability, doi
  257. (2002). PAN Parks: WWF's sustainable tourism certification programme in Europe's national parks, doi
  258. (1995). Parque Nacional da Peneda Geres and Instituto de Conservagdo da Natureza
  259. (1991). Parque Nacional da Peneda Geres,
  260. (2000). Parque Naclonal da Peneda Geres,
  261. (1998). Participation Sourcebook, Appendix 11: Working Papers Summaries, Designing Community-BasedDevelopment,
  262. (1989). Participatory Education and Grassroots Development: Current Experiences in Appalachia,
  263. (2000). Partnerships in Communities: Reweaving the Fabric of Rural America.
  264. (1990). patches From a Fragile Continent.
  265. (1981). Peasant Mobilization and Rural Development,
  266. (1994). Peasants, Patrons, and the State in Northern Portugal,
  267. (1981). People in places: a transactional view of settings.
  268. (1996). Perceived impacts of tourism: The Case of Samos.
  269. (1986). Philosophical Relationships: Conservation, Leisure, Recreation and Tourism,
  270. (1995). Place identity: Physical world socialization of the self, giving places meaning. doi
  271. (1996). Planning for Balanced Development,
  272. (2006). Planning tourism employment: a developing country perspective, doi
  273. (2004). Planningfor sustainability: Creating liveable, equitable and ecological communities. doi
  274. (1987). Polish holiday villages. Secular tradition and modem practice, doi
  275. (1968). Political Order in Changing Societies. doi
  276. (1987). Popular participation policies as methods for advancing social integration,
  277. (1992). Poverty and employment in India. In
  278. (1997). Power relations and community-based tourism planning doi
  279. (1970). Power, Authority and Influence,
  280. (1982). Power, Planning and People in Rural East Anglia,
  281. (1998). Practical Nonparametric Statistics, 3 rd ed., doi
  282. (1977). Prejudice and Tolerance in Ireland, Dublin: College of Industrial Relations. doi
  283. (1976). Production and Reproduction: A comparative study of the domestic domain, Cambridge: doi
  284. (2007). Profiling segments of tourists in rural areas of South-Eastern Spain, doi
  285. (1954). Psychometric Methods (2 d edition):
  286. (1967). Psychometric Theory, doi
  287. (1990). Public Participation in Tourism Planning, doi
  288. (1985). Putting people first: Sociological variables for sustainable development, doi
  289. (2004). Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS 12, doi
  290. (1997). Quantitative data analysis with SPSS for Windows, doi
  291. (1966). Questionnaire Design and Attitude Measurement, doi
  292. (1978). Questionnaires and interviews in geographical research, CATMOG 18,, Geo Abstracts,
  293. (2000). Rationality and Solidarities: The Social Organization of Common Property Resources in the lmdrhas Valley of Morocco,
  294. (2006). Re-conceptuallsing rural resources as countryside capital: The case of rural tourism, doi
  295. (1978). Reason and Society in the Middle Ages. doi
  296. (1991). Reclaiming capital: democratic initiatives and community development. doi
  297. (1976). Regional Analysis, Volume 11 Social Systems,
  298. (2005). Relationships, Networks and the Learning Regions: Case Evidence from the Peak District National Park, doi
  299. (1995). Remarking the Italian
  300. (1991). Report on Tourism and Agriculture,
  301. (2003). Research design. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, doi
  302. (1993). Research methods for Leisure and Tourism: A Practical Guide. doi
  303. (1997). Research Methodsfor Leisure and Tourism,
  304. (1995). Researching Tourist Satisfaction. doi
  305. (2001). Resident Attitudes in a Mature Destination: the Case of Wakiki, doi
  306. (1998). Resident attitudes to tourism development --- a comparative study between the Rangitikei, New Zealand and Bakewell, United Kingdom, doi
  307. (1986). Resident Attitudes to Tourism impacts in Hawaii, doi
  308. (1994). Resident attitudes to tourism In North Wales, doi
  309. (1985). Resident Attitudes towards Tourists in a Turkish Resort Town, doi
  310. (2002). Resident attitudes: A Structural Modeling Approach, doi
  311. (2000). Resident perceptions of tourism development in doi
  312. (1990). Resident Support for Tourism Development, doi
  313. (2005). Residents' doi
  314. (2000). Residents' Attitudes to Proposed Tourism Development, doi
  315. (1996). Residents' attitudes to tourism development: the case of Cyprus, doi
  316. (2005). Residents' attitudes toward general and forestrelated impacts of tourism: the case of doi
  317. (2008). Residents' Attitudes Toward Tourism and Perceived Personal Benefits in a Rural Community, doi
  318. (2002). Residents' Attitudes toward Tourism Development, doi
  319. (2004). Residents' Attitudes toward Tourism Development: a Literature Review with Implications for Tourism Planning, doi
  320. (1999). Residents' opinions of tourism development in the historical city of York, doi
  321. (2002). Residents' perceptions of the cultural benefits of tourism, doi
  322. (1992). Residents' perceptions research on the social impacts of tourism, doi
  323. (1990). Resorts Go Up ...
  324. (2004). Rethinking standards from green to sustainable doi
  325. (1991). Review and Evaluation of the Theoretical Approaches to Community as Employed in Travel and Tourism Impact Research on Rural Community Organisation and Change,
  326. (1998). Roots of unsustainable tourism development at the local level: the case of Urgup in doi
  327. (1998). Roots of unsustainable tourism development at the local level: the case of Urgup in Turkey, doi
  328. (1998). Rural change and the elderly in rural places: doi
  329. (1991). Rural community tourism development impacts and policies. Report prepared for the Western Governors' Association,
  330. (2001). Rural Cultural Economy: tourism and social relations, doi
  331. Rural Development Center, Community Tourism Assessment Handbook,
  332. (2003). Rural development in Kainuu region in Finland: A case study of Sotkamo, Finnish Context Report,
  333. (2007). Rural governance, community empowerment and the new institutionalism: A case study of the Isle of Wight, doi
  334. (1987). Rural Resident Perceptions and Attitudes, doi
  335. (1990). Rural Resident Tourism Perceptions and Attitudes by Community Level of Tourism. doi
  336. (1989). Rural tourism and marketing: Synthesis and new ways of working, doi
  337. (1999). Rural Tourism and the Development of Less Favoured Areas Between Rhetoric and Practice, unpublished paper presented at the Summer Institute of ERSA, doi
  338. (1996). Rural tourism development: shifting basis of community solidarity, doi
  339. (1996). Rural tourism in southern Germany, doi
  340. (2004). Rural Tourism: An Annotated Bibliography, US Department of Agriculture,
  341. (2002). Scale of Hospitality Firms and Local Economic Development: Evidence from Crete, doi
  342. (1988). Segmenting local residents by their attitudes, interests and opinions toward tourism, doi
  343. (1999). Segmenting Tourism in Rural Areas: The Case of North and Central Portugal, doi
  344. (1990). Settlement identity: Psychological bonds with home place in a mobile society. doi
  345. (1995). Seýf Esteem: Research, Theory and Practice.
  346. (1990). Small firms, new firms and uneven regional development in doi
  347. (2004). Social Capital and Economic Prosperity: An Alternative Account, paper presented at the annual conference of the Canadian Political Science Association,
  348. (2004). Social Capital and Household Income in Urban Colombia, Universidad de Los
  349. (1997). Social Capital and Locally Initiated Economic Development. doi
  350. (2003). Social Capital and Regional Economic Growth, paper submitted to ERSA
  351. (1988). Social Capital and the Creation of Human Capital, doi
  352. (1999). Social Capital in Britain,, doi
  353. (2003). Social Capital in Building Regional Innovative Capability: A Theoretical and Conceptual Assessment, paper presented at the 43d Congress of European Regional Science Foundation,
  354. (1998). Social Capital, Intellectual Capital, and the Organizational Advantage. doi
  355. (2001). Social capital, participation and sustainable development: recent examples of'inclusive consultation in New Zealand, paper presented at
  356. (2000). Social Capital: Evidence and implications,
  357. (1998). Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modem Sociology. doi
  358. (1996). Social Capital. Satellite Group on Social Capital. Environment Department,
  359. (1996). Social Dimensions of Economic Growth, Eric
  360. (1999). Social Exchange Behaviour in Logistics relstionships: A Skipper Perspective",
  361. (1987). Social Impact of Tourism on Central Florida, doi
  362. (1993). Social impacts of tourism: Host perceptions, doi
  363. (1997). Social Inclusion and Citizenship in Europe: The contribution of community development. Den Haag: Combined European Bureau for Social Development.
  364. (2002). Social infrastructure and community economic development strategies: the case of self-development and industrial recruitment in rural Iowa, doi
  365. (1991). Social Movement Theory and the Sociology of Religion: Toward a New Synthesis, doi
  366. (2004). Social or economic goals, civic inclusion or exclusion? An analysis of rural development theory and practice, doi
  367. (1975). Social Theoryfor Planning,
  368. (2006). Social valuing for Ogasawara as a place and space among ethnic host, doi
  369. (1986). Social Well Being and the Community, doi
  370. (1966). Societies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Paskaleva- Shapira, K. (200 1), Innovative Partnerships for Sustainable Urban Tourism, paper presented at the TTRA European Conference "Creating and Managing Growth in Travel and Tourism",
  371. (1977). Solutions to dislocation in the case of Portugal; emigration vs mobilization, paper presented at
  372. (1993). Some fundamental truths about tourism: Understanding tourisms social and environmental impacts. doi
  373. (2000). Sources of Social Capital, doi
  374. (1994). Space, place and gender. doi
  375. (1994). Spatial variations in new firm formation in the Republic of Ireland, doi
  376. (2005). Stages in emergence of participatory tourism development process in developing countries, doi
  377. (2005). Stakeholder collaboration and heritage management, doi
  378. (1992). Start-ups and shut-downs in multi- locational firms: a comparative perspective,
  379. (1994). Starting Research: An Introduction to Academic Research and Dissertation Writing.
  380. (1987). States of peripheral tourism development-Canada's Northwest Territories, doi
  381. (1967). Statistical Surveys,
  382. (2001). Strategic Planning and Community Involvement as Contributors to Sustainable Tourism Development, doi
  383. (1984). Strong Arguments and Weak Evidence: The Open/Closed Questioning Controversy of the 1940s, doi
  384. (1984). Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. doi
  385. (1993). Structural change in fanning and its relationship to rural communities,
  386. (2000). Support for rural tourism: Does it make a difference?, doi
  387. (1986). Surplus Powerlessness: The Psychodynamics of Everyday Life and the Psychology of Individual and Social Transformation. Oakland: Institute for Labor and Mental Health.
  388. (2002). Survey Research Methods (3 rd edition),
  389. (1995). Sustainability and community. doi
  390. (2006). Sustainability indicators for managing community tourism, doi
  391. (1999). Sustainability indicators. Measuring the immeasurable. doi
  392. (1996). Sustainable community tourism development revisited, doi
  393. (1997). Sustainable development or redevelopment?, in
  394. (1996). Sustainable heritage tourism: Achievable goal or elusive deal?,
  395. (2001). Sustainable livelihoods-building on the wealth o the poor,
  396. (1996). Sustainable tourism and the local economy, Sustainable Tourism; Ethics and the Environment, Conference proceedings,
  397. (2002). Sustainable tourism and the question of the commons doi
  398. (1997). Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm, doi
  399. (1995). Sustainable tourism development and use: follies, foibles, and practical approaches, in
  400. (2003). Sustainable Tourism Development: A Critique, doi
  401. (1993). Sustainable Tourism Development: Guide for Local Planners (2 doi
  402. (1981). Sustainable Tourism Development: Guide for Local Planners. World Tourism Organisation, doi
  403. (1986). Sustainable Tourism Management: Principles and Practice,
  404. (2002). Sustainable Tourism: An Overview of the Concept and Its Position in Relation to Conceptualisations of Tourism, doi
  405. (2001). Sustaining Communities: An empirical investigation of social capital in regional Australia, paper presented at the SEGRA
  406. (1999). Technology policy in the learning economy, doi
  407. (1994). Testing the push and pull factors, doi
  408. (2002). Testingfor Normality. doi
  409. (2005). Textile Tourists in the European Periphery: new markets for disadvantaged areas?, doi
  410. (2007). The 'green green grass of home'? Return migration to rural Ireland, doi
  411. (2001). The "social" in social capital, doi
  412. (1997). The agricultural system in Soajo. Is it sustainable?
  413. (1995). The agricultures of the Midwest and their demographic and economic environments,
  414. (1988). The applicability of Asian values to other sociocultural settings, in Peter Berger and Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao, In Search of an East Asian Development Model, doi
  415. (1987). The Art of Asking Questions, doi
  416. (1998). The associational economy: Firms, regions and innovation, doi
  417. (1994). The Attitudes of Bakewell Residents to Tourism and Issues in Community Responsive Tourism. doi
  418. (1995). The Careless Society: Community and its Counterfeits, doi
  419. (1978). The city and self-identity.
  420. (1963). The Civic Culture. doi
  421. (2001). The complementary roles of human and social capital,
  422. (1980). The concept of a tourism area cycle of evoluton: mplications for management of resources,
  423. (1990). The Consequences of Modernity. doi
  424. (1993). The Critical Villager-Beyond Community Participation, doi
  425. (1999). The development of the Portuguese economy: A case of Europeanization, doi
  426. (2002). The dynamics of future development in rural-urban zones: sustainable development for the "rurban " zones?, Conference to the European Forum on Rural Development Cooperation,
  427. (1997). The Economic Pitfalls and Barriers of the Sustainable Tourism Concept in the Case of National Parks. doi
  428. (1997). The Espigueiros of Northern Portugal: towards a typology and a strategy for conservation.
  429. (1997). The EU LEADER Initiative and Endogenous Rural Development: the Application of the Programme in Two Rural Areas of Andalusia, doi
  430. (1997). The EU LEADER Initiative and Endogenous Rural Development: the Application of the Programme in Two Rural Areas of Andalusia, Southern Spain, doi
  431. (1976). The European debate on customs of inheritance, 1500-1700,
  432. (1990). The future for attractions, Tourism doi
  433. (1969). The Gift, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. doi
  434. (1974). The Homeless Mind, doi
  435. (1988). The Impact of Tourism Development on Resident's Perception of Community Life. doi
  436. (2005). The inequality of social capital and the reproduction of chronic poverty, doi
  437. (1996). The LEADER programme in the La Ripja Mountains: An example of integral tourist
  438. (1995). The many interpretations of participation,
  439. (1958). The Moral Basis of a Backward Society, doi
  440. (1976). The Moral Economy of the Peasant. New Haven: doi
  441. (2002). The motivational foundation of social networks doi
  442. (1995). The New Leadership Agenda, doi
  443. (1997). The Origins and Practice of Participatory Rural Appraisal. doi
  444. (1988). The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. doi
  445. (1980). The Perceived Impact of Tourism by Residents: A Case Study in Santa Marta, Columbia, doi
  446. (1986). The Poor in the Middle Ages. An Essay in Social History. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. New Haven: doi
  447. (1984). The Procedural Republic and the Unencumbered Self, doi
  448. (1988). The Psychology of Social Change,
  449. (1993). The Rational Reconstruction of Society, doi
  450. (2005). The relationship among tourists' involvement, place attachment and interpretation satisfaction in Taiwan's national parks, doi
  451. (1986). The role of new firms in economic growth: some evidence from South West England,
  452. (1996). The Role of Organizations in Community-Based Development,
  453. (2003). The role of VET in building social capital for rural community development in Australia, paper presented at the Symposium on education for rural transformation, International Research and Training Centre for Rural Education,
  454. (1996). The shifting stage of politics: new medieval and postmodern territorialities?, doi
  455. (1996). The shifting stage of politics: new medieval and postmodern territorialities?, Environment and Planning D: doi
  456. (1994). The Six Pillars of Seýf-Esteem.
  457. (1974). The Social Impact of Tourism on Host Communites: A Study of the Language Change in Switzerland, School of Geography,
  458. (2002). The Social Management of Rural Nature: Understanding Agrarian-Based Rural Development, doi
  459. (1971). The Sociological Tradition, doi
  460. (1963). The Sociology of Economic Life, doi
  461. (1995). The Spirit of Community, doi
  462. (1986). The Structure of Sociological Theory. doi
  463. (1985). The Symbolic Construction of Community, doi
  464. (2007). The three Ps: Portuguese migrant labour in East Anglia,
  465. (1991). The Tweed Shire tourism strategy: Implications of a local tourism planning process. Paper presented at the Benefits and Costs of Tourism Conference.
  466. (2006). The use of conjoint analysis to assess the impact of the cross-cultural exchange between hosts and guests, doi
  467. (2004). The Voluntary Sector as a Partner in Local Governance, paper presented at the EGPA
  468. (1996). The Vulnerable Observer, doi
  469. (2007). The World Bank's role in tourism development, doi
  470. (1975). Theoretical Thinking in Sociology, London; doi
  471. (1997). There is no certainty anymore, unpublished paper presented at the Peripheral Area Tourism-Intemational Tourism Research Conference,
  472. (1983). Third World Development. doi
  473. (1998). Tools for Sustainability analysis in Planning and Managing tourism and recreation in the destination,
  474. (1979). Tourism - Passport to Development?, doi
  475. (1982). Tourism and Conservation, doi
  476. (2002). Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues.
  477. (2007). Tourism and Intercultural Exchange, doi
  478. (2003). Tourism and local society and culture in tourism communities, doi
  479. (1986). Tourism and Nature. The Basis for Growth in
  480. (2000). Tourism and Older Residents in a Sunbelt Resort, doi
  481. (1998). Tourism and Recreation in Rural Areas, doi
  482. (2000). Tourism and sustainable development: exploring the theoretical divide, doi
  483. (1995). Tourism and the environment. A sustainable relationship?,
  484. (1989). Tourism as a Factor of Change: A Sociocultural Study.
  485. (2000). Tourism Brand Attributes of the Alto Minho,
  486. (1996). Tourism Development: Principles, Processes and Policies. doi
  487. (2004). Tourism in national parks and protected areas: planning and management, doi
  488. (1995). Tourism in Portugal: Diversity, Diffusion, and Regional and Local Development, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografle, doi
  489. (2006). Tourism in rural areas: doi
  490. (2001). Tourism in the Fjords and Mountains: A Case Study from Western Norway, doi
  491. (1988). Tourism Planning. doi
  492. (1997). Tourism policy and performance - the Irish experience, doi
  493. (2004). Tourism Routes as a Tool for the Economic Development of Rural Areas-Vibrant Hope or Impossible Dream, doi
  494. (2006). Tourism, fanning and diversification: An attitudinal study, doi
  495. (1985). Tourism: A Community Approach. doi
  496. (1982). Tourism: Economic, physical and social impacts, Longman Scientific & Technical, doi
  497. (1978). Tourism's Impact: The Social Cost of the Destination Community as Perceived by its Residents. doi
  498. (1996). Tourist development in Estonia. Images, sustainability and integrated rural development, doi
  499. (1994). Tourist merchandise as a means of generating local benefits from Ecotourism, doi
  500. (1985). Towards empowerment,
  501. (2006). Traditions of sustainability in tourism studies, doi
  502. (1991). Travel and Tourism: A Legislator's Guide.
  503. (1999). Trends in voluntary association participation, doi
  504. (1995). Trust: the social virtues and the creation ofprosperity. doi
  505. (2008). Turismo no Espago Rural, A oferta ea procura no TER,
  506. (2001). Understanding and measuring social capital: a synthesis of findings and recommendations ftom the social capital initiative, doi
  507. (2000). Understanding individual's attachment to selected destination: An application of place attachment,
  508. (2002). Understanding Residents' Support for Tourism Development in the Central Region of Ghana, doi
  509. (2004). Understanding, measuring and utilizing social capital: clarifying concepts and presenting a field application ftom India, doi
  510. United Nations-The Brundtland Report "Our Common Future",
  511. (2003). Urban Residents' Attitudes toward Tourism Development: The Case of Crete, doi
  512. (1999). Use of Overseas Migrants' Remittances to the Extended Family for Business Investment: doi
  513. (1991). Using tourism to protect existing culture: a project In doi
  514. (1996). Utilizing stakeholder strategies for positive collaborative outcomes. doi
  515. (1997). Vacationscape: Developing Tourist Areas, P edition,
  516. (2001). Validating a tourism development theory with structural equation modelling. doi
  517. (1991). Value Conflicts in Mountain Park Settings, doi
  518. (2004). Villagers' perceptions of traditions: Some observations on the development of rural cultural tourism in China,
  519. (2000). What is Social Capital? A Study of Interaction in a Rural Community, Sociologis Ruralis, doi
  520. (1976). When enough's enough: the natives are restless in
  521. (2000). Why tourists buy textile souvenirs:
  522. (1987). Work, Innovation and Investment: The Impact of Return Migrants in Barbados,
  523. (1999). Work, social capital, and the rebirth of civic society: A blueprint for a New Third Sector Politics,
  524. (1995). Working in Neighbourhoods. Surrey www. unpopulation-org, accessed on I Oth
  525. (1995). World Tourism Organisation doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.