Abstract Background Coconut oil is commonly used as herbal medicine worldwide. There is limited information regarding its effects on the developing embryo and infant growth. Methods We investigated the effect of virgin coconut oil post-natally and until 6\ua0weeks old in mice (age of maturity). Females were fed with either standard, virgin olive oil or virgin coconut oil diets 1\ua0month prior to copulation, during gestation and continued until weaning of pups. Subsequently, groups of pups borne of the respective diets were continuously fed the same diet as its mother from weaning until 6\ua0weeks old. Profiles of the standard and coconut oil diets were analysed by gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GCFID). Results Analysis of the mean of the total weight gained/ loss over 6\ua0weeks revealed that in the first 3\ua0weeks, pups whose mothers were fed virgin coconut oil and virgin olive oil have a significantly lower body weight than that of standard diet pups. At 6\ua0weeks of age, only virgin coconut oil fed pups exhibited significantly lower body weight. We report that virgin coconut oil modifies the fatty acid profiles of the standard diet by inducing high levels of medium chain fatty acids with low levels of essential fatty acids. Furthermore, pups borne by females fed with virgin coconut oil developed spiky fur. Conclusion Our study has demonstrated that virgin coconut oil could affect infant growth and appearance via maternal intake; we suggest the use of virgin coconut oil as herbal medicine to be treated with caution
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