Adaptive Hypermedia systems are becoming more important in our everyday activities and users are expecting more intelligent services from them. The key element of a generic adaptive hypermedia system is the user model. Traditional machine learning techniques used to create user models are usually too rigid to capture the inherent uncertainty of human behavior. In this context, soft computing techniques can be used to handle and process human uncertainty and to simulate human decision-making. This paper examines how soft computing techniques, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy clustering and neuro-fuzzy systems, have been used, alone or in combination with other machine learning techniques, for user modeling from 1999 to 2004. For each technique, its main applications, limitations and future directions for user modeling are presented. The paper also presents guidelines that show which soft computing techniques should be used according to the task implemented by the application
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