Mafic alkalic volcanism was widespread in the Carpathian–Pannonian region (CPR) between 11 and 0.2 Ma. It followed the Miocene continental collision of the Alcapa and Tisia blocks with the European plate, as subduction-related calc-alkaline magmatism was waning. Several groups of mafic alkalic rocks from different regions within the CPR have been distinguished on the basis of ages and/or trace-element compositions. Their trace element and Sr–Nd–Pb isotope systematics are consistent with derivation from complex mantle-source regions, which included both depleted asthenosphere and metasomatized lithosphere. The mixing of DMM-HIMU-EMII mantle components within asthenosphere-derived magmas indicates variable contamination of the shallow asthenosphere and/or thermal boundary layer of the lithosphere by a HIMU-like component prior to and following the introduction of subduction components.\ud \ud Various mantle sources have been identified: Lower lithospheric mantle modified by several ancient asthenospheric enrichments (source A); Young asthenospheric plumes with OIB-like trace element signatures that are either isotopically enriched (source B) or variably depleted (source C); Old upper asthenosphere heterogeneously contaminated by DM-HIMU-EMII-EMI components and slightly influenced by Miocene subduction-related enrichment (source D); Old upper asthenosphere heterogeneously contaminated by DM-HIMU-EMII components and significantly influenced by Miocene subduction-related enrichment (source E). Melt generation was initiated either by: (i) finger-like young asthenospheric plumes rising to and heating up the base of the lithosphere (below the Alcapa block), or (ii) decompressional melting of old asthenosphere upwelling to replace any lower lithosphere or heating and melting former subducted slabs (the Tisia block)
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