Filters for migrated offset substacks are designed by partial coherence analysis to predict ‘normal’ amplitude variation with offset (AVO) in an anomaly free area. The same prediction filters generate localized prediction errors when applied in an AVO-anomalous interval. These prediction errors are quantitatively related to the AVO gradient anomalies in a background that is related to the minimum AVO anomaly detectable from the data. The prediction-error section is thus used to define a reliability threshold for the identification of AVO anomalies. Coherence analysis also enables quality control of AVO analysis and inversion. For example, predictions that are non-localized and/or do not show structural conformity may indicate spatial variations in amplitude–offset scaling, seismic wavelet or signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio content. Scaling and waveform variations can be identified from inspection of the prediction filters and their frequency responses. S/N ratios can be estimated via multiple coherence analysis.\ud \ud AVO inversion of seismic data is unstable if not constrained. However, the use of a constraint on the estimated parameters has the undesirable effect of introducing biases into the inverted results: an additional bias-correction step is then needed to retrieve unbiased results. An alternative form of AVO inversion that avoids additional corrections is proposed. This inversion is also fast as it inverts only AVO anomalies. A spectral coherence matching technique is employed to transform a zero-offset extrapolation or near-offset substack into P-wave impedance. The same technique is applied to the prediction-error section obtained by means of partial coherence, in order to estimate S-wave velocity to P-wave velocity (VS/VP) ratios. Both techniques assume that accurate well ties, reliable density measurements and P-wave and S-wave velocity logs are available, and that impedance contrasts are not too strong. A full Zoeppritz inversion is required when impedance contrasts that are too high are encountered. An added assumption is made for the inversion to the VS/VP ratio, i.e. the Gassmann fluid-substitution theory is valid within the reservoir area. One synthetic example and one real North Sea in-line survey illustrate the application of the two coherence methods
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