Yōga and Ņihonga as Opposites in Japanese Painting in 19th and 20th Century

Abstract

Meidži periodā parādījās divi pretēji uzskati par skaistumu un māklsu. Jōga un ņihonga. Stils, kas popularizēja Rietumu mākslu, estētiku, tehniku un tradīciju, jōga jeb “Rietumu bilde”. Ņihonga jeb “Japānas bilde” pretstatā pieturējās pie mākslas stiliem un tehnikas, kas Japānā bija zināmas vairākus gadsimtus. Lielu ieguldījumu jōgas stila pētījumos ir devuši Alīsija Volka, Berts Vinters-Tamaki, bet Elēna P. Konanta, Laurens Smits pētīja ņihonga. Šajā Darbā tiks apskatīta abu stilu vēsture un evolūcija, kā pretēji stili ir ietekmējuši viens otru un kā stili ir ietekmējuši Japānas mūsdienu mākslu. Lai vairāk iepazītu stilus, ir izvēlēti trīs jōgas un ņihongas mākslinieki, no viņu daiļrades izvēlēti gleznas, kas parādītu katra mākslinieku gleznošanas stilu, tehniku un tēmas. No jōgas māksliniekiem izvēlēti ir Takahaši Juiči, Kuroda Seiki, Tecugorō Jorodzu, no ņihongas – Hašimoto Gahō, Tomioka Tessai and Jokojama Misao.In Meiji period appeared two opposite views about beauty and art. Yōga and ņihonga. Style, which popularized Western art, aesthetics, technique and tradition – yōga or ‘Western picture’. Nihonga or ‘Japanese picture’ on contrary held to art styles and techniques, which in Japan were known for many centuries. Major contributions in yoga style research have been given by Alicia Volk, Bert Winther-Tamaki, but Ellen P. Conant and Lauren Smith have researched nihonga. In this paper will be discussed history and evolution of both styles, how opposite styles influenced each other and how these styles influenced Japan’s contemporary art. To get to know styles better three artists from yoga and nihonga have been selected, paintings chosen from their work, which would represent artists’ painting style, technique and themes. From yōga selected artists are Takahashi Yuichi, Kuroda Seiki, Tetsugorō Yorozu, from nihonga – Hashimoto Gahō, Tomioka Tessai and Yokoyama Misao

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