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EFFECTS OF ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO{sub 2} ON CANOPY TRANSPIRATION IN SENESCENT SPRING WHEAT

By S. GROSSMAN, B.A. KIMBALL, D.J. HUNSAKER, S.P. LONG, R.L. GARCIA, TH. KARTSCHALL, G.W. WALL, JR. P.J PINTER, F. WECHSUNG and R.L. LAMORTE

Abstract

The seasonal course of canopy transpiration and the diurnal courses of latent heat flux of a spring wheat crop were simulated for atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} and 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. The hourly weather data, soil parameters and the irrigation and fertilizer treatments of the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment wheat experiment in Arizona (1992/93) were used to drive the model. The simulation results were tested against field measurements with special emphasis on the period between anthesis and maturity. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat growth model. The simulated intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, C{sub i} was determined from the ratio of C{sub i} to the CO{sub 2} concentration at the leaf surface, C{sub s} the leaf to air specific humidity deficit and a possibly unfulfilled transpiration demand. After anthesis, the measured assimilation rates of the flag leaves decreased more rapidly than their stomatal conductances, leading to a rise in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. In order to describe this observation, an empirical model approach was developed which took into account the leaf nitrogen content for the calculation of the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. Simulation results obtained with the new model version were in good agreement with the measurements. If changes in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio accorded to the decrease in leaf nitrogen content during leaf senescence were not considered in the model, simulations revealed an underestimation of the daily canopy transpiration of up to 20% and a decrease in simulated seasonal canopy transpiration by 10%. The measured reduction in the seasonal sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation owing to CO{sub 2} enrichment, in comparison, was only about 5%

Topics: Irrigation, Transpiration, Wheat, Carbon Dioxide, Fertilizers, Seasonal Variations, Mathematical Models, 54 Environmental Sciences, Soil Chemistry, 60 Applied Life Sciences, Plant Growth, Field Tests
Publisher: Brookhaven National Laboratory
Year: 1998
DOI identifier: 10.2172/758982
OAI identifier:
Provided by: UNT Digital Library
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