The two-country monetary model is extended to include a consumption externality with habit persistence. This is set within a limited participation framework. The model is simulated using the artificial economy methodology. The 'puzzles' in the forward market are re-examined. The model is able to account for (a) the low volatility of the forward discount (b) the higher volatility of expected forward speculative profits (c) the even higher volatility of spot rate changes (d) the persistence in the forward discount and (e) the random walk in spot exchange rates The major innovation is that it is able to replicate some of the extent of the bias of the forward discount as a predictor of realised spot rate changes.Artificial economy, Forward foreign exchange, Limited participation, Habit persistence
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