Commuting in multinodal urban systems: An empirical comparison of three alternative models
AbstractThe paper analyses whether the basic monocentric model of urban structure and commuting explains actual commuting in Europe, i.e. the Netherlands. As in the United States much wasteful commuting is established. The basic model has a low degree of explanatory power. In order to get more in line with actual commuting, the paper elaborates two alternatives to the basic model. Besides a decon-centrated model, a cross-traffic model is developed. Particularly the latter is quite successful in explaining actual commuting. The paper pleads for endo-geni-zing employment and stresses heterogeneity in labour demand and supply.