This paper examines the asymptotic properties of the popular within, GLS estimators and the Hausman test for panel data models with both large numbers of cross-section (N) and time-series (T) observations. The model we consider includes the regressors with deterministic trends in mean as well as time invariant regressors. If a time-varying regressor is correlated with time invariant regressors, the time series of the time varying regressor is not ergodic. Our asymptotic results are obtained considering the dependence of such non-ergodic time-varying regressors. We find that the within estimator is as efficient as the GLS estimator. Despite this asymptotic equivalence, however, the Hausman statistic, which is essentially a distance measure between the two estimators, is well defined and asymptotically \chi^2-distributed under the random effects assumption.
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