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Effects of Gd 3+ doping on structural and dielectric properties of PZT (Zr:Ti=52:48) piezoceramics

By L. Pdungsap, S. Boonyeun, P. Winotai, N. Udomkan and P. Limsuwan

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of doping Gd into Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 ceramics prepared by solid state reaction. X-ray diffraction patterns show that all PGZT samples are of tetragonal structure and the highest doping should be no more than 2 mole % Gd at which the unreacted oxides start to appear. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of PGZT's indicate that Gd 3+ can enter both A site of the perovskite structure instead of only A site as widely believed. The ESR peaks resonance shift towards low fields as the concentration is higher, which is due to the change in crystal field experienced by Gd 3+ ions. At x =0.001, 0.005 and 0.01 dopings, two sets of powder ESR signals arising from Gd 3+ (4f 7, spin 7/2) ions at A site. The first set shows some fine structure having strong absorption peaks centered at 76.26 mT (g= 8.550). The second is a seven-peak spectrum centered at 206.01 mT (g= 3.165), which belongs to the Gd 3+ ions at B sites. Furthermore, the overlapped ESR strong absorption peaks from 309.17 mT to 314.49 mT (g= 2.2818-2.1087) belong to Gd 3+ of unreacted Gd 2O 3. The local environments of Gd 3+ ions were verified from the calculated ESR spectra using appropriate spin Hamiltonian parameter, i.e. gyromagnetic tensor g, zero-field splitting D and hyperfine tensor A. Copyright EDP Sciences/Società Italiana di Fisica/Springer-Verlag 2005

DOI identifier: 10.1140/epjb/e2005-00407-9
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