(1997). A Comparison of Social Costs and Beneﬁts of Paper Check Presentment and ECP with Truncation,” Federal Reserve Bank of Boston New England Economic Review (July/August
(1989). Accounting Ofﬁce. Check Collection: Competitive Fairness is an Elusive Goal.
(1998). Committee on the Federal Reserve in the Payments Mechanism. The Federal Reserve in the Payments Mechanism. Washington: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System,
(1998). Did the Fed’s Founding Improve the Efﬁciency of the United States Payments System?” Manuscript. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis,
Governors of the Federal Reserve System. “Collection of Checks and Other Items by Federal Reserve Banks and
(1998). Non Par Banking: Competition and Monopoly in Markets for Payments Services.” Manuscript. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Financial Services Research Group,
(1926). Payment System Innovator 25 Spahr, Walter Earl. The Clearing and Collection of Checks.
(1996). Protecting Competition from the Postal Monopoly.
(1996). Settlements. Statistics on Payment Systems in the Group of Ten Countries. Basle, Switzerland: Bank for International Settlements,
(1996). The Economics of Networks,”
(1990). The Federal Reserve in the Payments System,”
(1996). The Founders’ Intentions: Sources of the Payments Services Franchise of the Federal Reserve Banks,” Working Paper No. 03– 96. Cleveland: Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Financial Services Research Group,
(1997). The Organization of Private Payment Networks,” Federal Reserve Bank of
(1986). The Regulatory Change in Telecommunications: The Dissolution of AT&T,”
(1967). The Theory and Practice of Nonpar Banking.