Technologies for electric, hybrid and hydrogen vehicles: Electricity from renewable energy sources in transport
AbstractThe article analyses and compares electricity and hydrogen as transportation fuels. The analysis includes aspects such as the energy utilisation from grid to wheels, vehicle range (linked to the physical properties of the onboard storage), costs, and durability (particularly of batteries). The article concludes that it is not possible to identify one option as the best choice given the wide range of aspects to consider and the substantial uncertainties. There is no clear cut priority between the main options - electric, hybrid or hydrogen/fuel cell drive - or within these. On the other hand, the analysis also identifies options that are clearly not advantageous in terms of energy efficiency, e.g. hydrogen in internal combustion engines or liquid hydrogen.