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A dynamic panel analysis of urban metro demand

By Daniel J. Graham, Amado Crotte and Richard J. Anderson


A dynamic panel model is used to estimate the effect that fares, income and quality of service have on demand for a sample of 22 urban metros. The estimated price elasticity is -0.05 in the short run and -0.33 in the long run. The estimated long run income elasticity is small but positive (0.18), indicating that metros are perceived as normal goods. The quality of service elasticities are positive and substantially higher than the absolute value of fare elasticities. The implication is that quality of service improvements, rather than fare reductions, may be more effective in increasing metro patronage.Urban metro Demand Dynamic panel GMM

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