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Intra-industry trade in agricultural and food products: the case of Ukraine

By Oksana Luka and Inna Levkovych

Abstract

The process of economic transformation in Ukraine is characterized by, among other things, a change in agricultural and food product trading patterns. Ukraine has remained a net exporter of agro-food products, but the total volume and worth, as well as the geographical structure of trade flows, has altered significantly, and further adjustments can be expected to take place in upcoming years. This paper examines Ukrainian agro-food trade, particularly focusing on different aspects of intra-industry trade (IIT), which is usually associated with low adjustment costs. To examine the development of IIT in agro-food products between Ukraine and its trading partners, two approaches are adopted. The Grubel-Lloyd Index is used to calculate the intensity of IIT and thus to determine its relative importance compared to inter-industry trade. IIT values estimated across separate product groups and for selected trading partners differ significantly and exhibit high variability over time, but generally the level of IIT is very low. The results show that the major part of agro-food trade is of the inter-industry type, and thus a product of underlying comparative advantages. Secondly, the paper examines changes in trade flows over time. For this purpose, different measures of marginal intra-industry trade are applied. Marginal IIT appears to be low, therefore, the structure of the change in agro-food trade flows between Ukraine and its trading partners during the analyzed period (1996-2002) is shown to be predominantly inter-industry, which implies potentially high adjustment costs. -- G E R M A N V E R S I O N: Der Transformationsprozess in der Ukraine ist unter anderem durch Änderungen der Handelsstruktur von landwirtschaftlichen und Nahrungsmittelprodukten charakterisiert. So haben sich das Gesamthandelsvolumen, die Warenstruktur sowie die geografische Struktur der Handelsströme bedeutsam geändert. Weitere Änderungen sind demnächst zu erwarten. Dennoch bleibt die Ukraine Netto-Exporteur von landwirtschaftlichen und Nahrungsmittelprodukten. Das Ziel von diesem Papier ist, die Landwirtschaft und den Nahrungsmittelhandel der Ukraine detailliert zu untersuchen. Hauptaugenmerk liegt dabei auf verschiedenen Aspekten des intrasektoralen Handels, welcher gewöhnlich mit niedrigen Anpassungskosten verbunden ist. Um dessen Entwicklung zu untersuchen, wurden zwei Ansätze verwendet. Zunächst nutzen wir den Grubel-Lloyd Index für die Bewertung der Intensität des intrasektoralen Handels. Herausgestellt werden soll die Bedeutung des intrasektoralen im Vergleich zu zwischensektoralem Handel. Das Niveau des intrasektoralen Handels, welches für Produktgruppen sowie für ausgewählte Handelspartner berechnet wurde, unterscheidet sich wesentlich und weist große Schwankungen im Zeitablauf auf. Insgesamt ist das Niveau aber sehr gering. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der intersektorale Handel überwiegt. Dies wird durch komparative Vorteile verursacht. Danach untersucht die Arbeit außerdem die Änderungen der Handelsströme im Zeitablauf. Dafür wurden verschiedene Maße des marginalen intrasektoralen Handels angewendet. Die marginalen Indizes sind niedrig, was bedeutet, dass die Änderungen in den Handelsströmen zwischen Ukraine und ihren Handelspartnern während der untersuchten Periode (1996-2002) intersektoralen Charakter haben, und somit potenzielle höhere Anpassungskosten mit einschließt.Intra-industry trade,marginal intra-industry trade,agro-food products,Ukraine,Intrasektoraler Handel,marginaler intrasektoraler Handel,landwirtschaftliche und Nahrungsmittelproduktion,Ukraine

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