We study the economic performance of Benthic Resource Management Areas (BRMAs) in central-southern Chile. The analysis considers 26 managed areas with Agreements of Use declaring Chilean abalone ( Concholepas concholepas ) to be the main exploited benthic resource from 2001 to 2003. Our analysis explores the role played by several characteristics thought to be potential BRMA performance determinants. These variables were defined and grouped into four types: economic, environmental–biological, institutional–organizational, and organizational leader. Our results indicate that the price of Chilean abalone, the size of the habitable area, the target resource density, the density of other resources, and leader experience are determinant factors for the economic performance of the BRMAs under study.