Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Innovation, technical change and patents in the development process: A long term view

By Mario Cimoli, Giovanni Dosi, Roberto Mazzoleni and Bhaven Sampat

Abstract

An essential aspect of "catching up" by developing countries is the emulation of technological leaders and the rapid accumulation by individuals and organizations of the knowledge and capabilities needed in order to sustain processes of technical learning. The rates and patterns of development of such capabilities are fundamentally shaped by the opportunities that indigenous organizations have to enter and operate in particular markets and technology areas. However, knowledge accumulation is also influenced by the governance of intellectual property rights (IPRs). The purpose of this work - prepared for a volume of the Initiative for Policy Dialogue, Columbia University, Intellectual and Property Rights Taskforce - is to offer an assessment of such influences in the long term, beginning with the early episodes of industrialization all the way to the present regime. The historical record is indeed quite diverse and variegated. However if there is a robust historical fact, it is the laxity or sheer absence of intellectual property rights in nearly all instances of successful catching up. We begin by reviewing a few theoretical arguments that economists have formulated on the effects of a system of patent protection. We will then review the historical evidence on the roles of patents in economic development. Next we discuss the changes in the IPR regime that have taken place roughly over the last third of a century in the United States. The reason for focusing on the United States is that doing so will outline the broad template of patent policy reform that has been adopted by policy makers in many other countries as a result of a varying mix of external pressures, myopia, corruption and ideological blindness. The final part of this essay, explores the likely impact of harmonization of international patent laws - including TRIPS - on developing countries.Intellectual Property Rights, Catching-up, Imitation, Development, TRIPS

OAI identifier:

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2002). 150 Years of Patent Protection”,
  2. 25Frommer, J.(2009).” Patent Disclosure”,
  3. (1991). An introduction to the Law and Economics of Intellectual Property”,
  4. (2009). Appropriability, Patents, and Rates of Innovation in Complex Products Industries", LEM Working Paper 2009-05, forthcoming
  5. (1987). Appropriating the returns from industrial research and development”,
  6. (2001). As Many as Six Impossible Patents before Breakfast: Proprety rights for Business Concepts and Patent System Reform”,
  7. (2004). Can “Open Science” be Protected from the Evolving Regime of Intellectual Property Rights Protections”,
  8. (1998). Can Patents Deter Innovation?
  9. (1986). Catching Up, Forging Ahead, and Falling Behind”,
  10. (2004). Collective invention during the British Industrial Revolution: The case of the Cornish Pumping Engine,”
  11. (1983). Collective Invention”,
  12. (2009). Compulsory Licensing of Patented Pharmaceutical Inventions: Evaluating the Options”
  13. (1996). Concepts of Invention and the Patent Controversy in Victorian Britain,”
  14. (1995). Corporate Strategies and Human genome" in Intellectual property in the realm of living forms and materials.,
  15. (2005). Democratizing Innovation.
  16. (1997). Determinants of patent rights: A cross-national study”.
  17. (2007). Do National Patent Laws Stimulate Domestic Innovation In
  18. (1998). Economic theories about the benefits and costs of patents”.
  19. (1962). Economic Welfare and Allocation of Resources for Inventions”,
  20. (1989). Empirical studies of innovation and market structure",
  21. (2009). Emulation v. Comparative Advantage: Competing and Complementary Principles in the History of Economic Policy,”
  22. (2002). Establishing a new intellectual property rights regime in the United States: Origins, content and problems”,
  23. (2009). Generic Challenges to Pharmaceutical Patents” Mimeo.
  24. (2009). Harmonization and Its Limits: A Case Study of TRIPS Implementation in India’s Pharmaceutical Sector” California Law Review.
  25. (2005). How Do Patent Laws Influence Innovation? Evidence from 19thCentury World's Fairs”, American Economic Review,
  26. (2006). How much should society fuel the greed of innovators? On the relations between appropriability, opportunities and the rates of innovation”.
  27. (2007). How Rich Countries Got Rich … and Why Poor Countries Stay Poor.
  28. (1981). Imitation Costs and Patents: An Empirical Study”,
  29. (1989). Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D”,
  30. (1999). Intellectual capitalism: An Overview”.
  31. (2010). Intellectual Property Rights, Development, and Catch Up: An International Comparative Study.
  32. (2009). Intellectual Property Rights, the Industrial Revolution,
  33. (2002). La Brevetabilité des logiciels : les étapes clés de l'évolution jurisprudentielle aux Etas Unis", Revue d'Economie Industrielle,
  34. (2002). La constitution d'un nouveau droit de la propriété intellectuelle sur le vivant aux Etats Unis : Origine et signification d'un dépassement de frontières".
  35. (2002). Links and Impacts:
  36. (2001). Markets for technology: why do we see them, why we don't see more of them and why should we care”, in
  37. (2001). Navigating the patent thicket: cross licenses, patent pools and standard setting,
  38. (2001). New Pills for Poor People? Empirical Evidence after GATT”. World Development,
  39. (1994). On limiting or encouraging rivalry in technical progress: The effect of patent scope decisions”.
  40. (1993). Patents and Welfare in an Evolutionary Model”.
  41. (1962). Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy,
  42. (2009). Pharmaceutical Sector Inquiry.
  43. (1986). Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy”.
  44. (2006). Property and the pursuit of knowledge: IPR issues affecting scientific research”,
  45. (2007). Public research institutions and economic catchup”.
  46. (2002). R&D spillovers, patents and the incentives to innovate in Japan and the United States”,
  47. (2000). Re-Examining the Role of Patents in Appropriating the Value of DNA Sequences”.
  48. (2006). Reflections on “The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research”: looking back and looking forward”.
  49. (2003). Science and Innovation: Rethinking the Rationales for Funding and Governance,
  50. (1945). Science The Endless Frontier,
  51. (2000). Stimuler la concurrence et l'innovation dans la société de l'information, Document de Travail, Version 1.0, beta 5, polycopié Soete,
  52. (2008). Systems of Innovation: Selected Essays in Evolutionary Economics,
  53. (2010). Technical Change and Industrial Dynamics as Evolutionary Processes”,
  54. (2009). The Accumulation of Capabilities
  55. (2002). The economics of patents: lessons from recent U.S. patent reform”.
  56. (1944). The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time,
  57. (2004). The market economy, and the scientific commons”.
  58. (2001). The patent paradox revisited: an empirical study of patenting in the US semiconductor industry,
  59. (2009). The Political Economy of Capabilities Accumulation,”
  60. (2009). The Roles of Research at Universities and Public Labs in Economic Catch-up,”
  61. (2003). The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain”, Law and Contemporary Problems.
  62. (1973). The sociology of science : theoretical and empirical investigations.
  63. (2000). The U.S. Patent System in Transition: Policy Innovation and the Innovation Process.
  64. (2006). The Use of Flexibilities in TRIPS by Developing Countries: Can They Promote Access to Medicines?,
  65. (2007). Trade related aspects of intellectual property rights: a commentary on the TRIPS agreement.
  66. (2006). TRIPS, pharmaceutical patent and public health – The case for access to HIV Care”
  67. (1998). Universities as a source of commercial technology: A detailed analysis of university patenting,
  68. (1999). What is behind the recent surge in patenting?,
  69. (2005). What to do about bad patents”.
  70. (2010). When Do Applicants Search for Prior Art?”,
  71. (2001). You can patent that? are patents on computer programs and business methods good for the new economy?”,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.