In the rural health-care organization of China, township hospitals ensure the delivery of basic medical services. Particularly damaged by the economic reforms implemented from 1975 to the end of the 1990s, township hospitals efficiency is questioned, mainly with the implementation since 2003 of the reform of health insurance in rural areas. From a database of 24 randomly selected township hospitals observed over the period 2000-2008 in Weifang prefecture (Shandong), the study examines the efficiency of township hospitals through a two-stage approach. As curative and preventive medical services delivered at township hospital level use different production processes, two data envelopment analysis models are estimated with different orientation chosen to compute scores. Results show that technical efficiency declines over time. Factors explaining the technical efficiency are mainly environmental characteristics rather than internal factors, but our results suggest also that in the context of China, the efficiency of township hospitals is influenced by unobservable factors.China, New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme, Technical efficiency, data envelopment analysis, Township Hospitals.