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Africa Competitiveness Report 2009

By AfDB AfDB and Adeleke Oluwole Salami
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  1. (2007). 1.02 Intellectual property protection Intellectual property protection and anti-counterfeiting measures in your country are (1 = weak and not enforced, 7 = strong and enforced) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  2. (2007). 1.03 Diversion of public funds In your country, diversion of public funds to companies, individuals, or groups due to corruption (1 = is common, 7 = never occurs) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  3. (2007). 1.04 Public trust of politicians Public trust in the financial honesty of politicians in your country is (1 = very low, 7 = very high) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  4. (2007). 1.05 Judicial independence Is the judiciary in your country independent from political influences of members of government, citizens, or firms? (1 = no—heavily influenced, 7 = yes—entirely independent) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  5. (2007). 1.07 Wastefulness of government spending The composition of public spending in your country (1 = is wasteful, 7 = efficiently provides necessary goods and services not provided by the market) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  6. (2007). 1.11 Business costs of terrorism The threat of terrorism in your country (1 = imposes significant costs on businesses, 7 = does not impose significant costs on businesses) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  7. (2007). 1.12 Business costs of crime and violence The incidence of common crime and violence in your country (1 = imposes significant costs on businesses, 7 = does not impose significant costs on businesses) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  8. (2007). 1.13 Organized crime Organized crime (mafia-oriented racketeering, extortion) in your country (1 = imposes significant costs on businesses, 7 = does not impose significant costs on businesses) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  9. (2007). 1.14 Reliability of police services Police services in your country (1 = cannot be relied upon to enforce law and order, 7 = can be relied upon to enforce law and order) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  10. (2007). 1.18 Protection of minority shareholders’ interests Interests of minority shareholders in your country are (1 = not protected by law, 7 = protected by law and actively enforced) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  11. (2007). 10.02 Foreign market size index (hard data) Value of exports of goods and services, normalized on a 1–7 (best) scale |
  12. (2007). 10.04 Imports as a percentage of GDP (hard data) Imports of goods and services as a percentage of GDP |
  13. (2007). 10.05 Exports as a percentage of GDP (hard data) Exports of goods and services as a percentage of GDP |
  14. (2007). 10th pillar: Market size 10.01 Domestic market size index (hard data) Sum of gross domestic product plus value of imports of goods and services, minus value of exports of goods and services, normalized on a 1–7 (best) scale |
  15. (2007). 11.02 Local supplier quality The quality of local suppliers in your country is (1 = very poor, 7 = very good) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  16. (2007). 11.03 State of cluster development In your country’s economy, well-developed and deep clusters are (1 = rare or absent, 7 = widespread in many fields) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  17. (2007). 11.06 Control of international distribution International distribution and marketing from your country (1 = take place through foreign companies, 7 = are owned and controlled by local companies) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  18. (2007). 11.08 Extent of marketing In your country, the extent of marketing is (1 = limited and primitive, 7 = extensive and employs the world’s most sophisticated tools and techniques) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  19. (2007). 12.04 University-industry research collaboration In the area of R&D, collaboration between the business community and local universities is (1 = minimal or nonexistent, 7 = intensive and ongoing) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  20. (2007). 12.05 Government procurement of advanced technology products In your country, government procurement decisions result in technological innovation (1 = strongly disagree, 7 = strongly agree) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  21. (2007). 12.06 Availability of scientists and engineers Scientists and engineers in your country are (1 = nonexistent or rare, 7 = widely available) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  22. (2007). 12.07 Utility patents (hard data) Number of utility patents (i.e., patents for invention) granted between January 1 and December 31, 2007, per million population |
  23. (2007). 2.02 Quality of roads Roads in your country are (1 = underdeveloped, 7 = extensive and efficient by international standards) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  24. (2007). 2.03 Quality of railroad infrastructure Railroads in your country are (1 = underdeveloped, 7 = extensive and efficient by international standards) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  25. (2007). 2.05 Quality of air transport infrastructure Passenger air transport in your country is (1 = underdeveloped, 7 = extensive and efficient by international standards) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  26. (2008). 2.06 Available seat kilometers (hard data) Scheduled available seat kilometers per week originating in country (in millions) |
  27. (2006). 2.08 Telephone lines (hard data) Main telephone lines per 100 population |
  28. (2007). 2nd pillar: Infrastructure 2.01 Quality of overall infrastructure General infrastructure in your country is (1 = underdeveloped, 7 = extensive and efficient by international standards) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  29. (2007). 3.02 National savings rate (hard data) National savings rate as a percentage of GDP |
  30. (2007). 3.03 Inflation (hard data) Annual percent change in consumer price index |
  31. (2007). 3.04 Interest rate spread (hard data) Average interest rate spread (difference between typical lending and deposit rates) |
  32. (2007). 3.05 Government debt (hard data) Government gross debt as a percentage of GDP |
  33. (2007). 3rd pillar: Macroeconomic stability 3.01 Government surplus/deficit (hard data) Central government gross surplus/deficit as a percentage of GDP |
  34. (2003). 4.02 Malaria incidence (hard data) Number of malaria cases per 100,000 population |
  35. (2007). 4.03 Business impact of tuberculosis How serious do you consider the impact of tuberculosis on your company in the next 5 years? (1 = extremely serious, 7 = not a problem) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  36. (2006). 4.04 Tuberculosis incidence (hard data) Number of tuberculosis cases per 100,000 population |
  37. (2007). 4.05 Business impact of HIV/AIDS How serious do you consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on your company in the next 5 years? (1 = extremely serious, 7 = not a problem) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  38. (2005). 4.07 Infant mortality (hard data) Infant (children aged 0–12 months) mortality per 1,000 live births |
  39. (2006). 4.08 Life expectancy (hard data) Life expectancy at birth (years) |
  40. (2007). 4.09 Quality of primary education Primary schools in your country are (1 = of poor quality, 7 = among the best in the world) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  41. (2006). 4.10 Primary enrollment (hard data) Net primary education enrollment rate |
  42. (2006). 4.11 Education expenditure (hard data) Adjusted savings: Education expenditure as percentage of GNI |
  43. (2006). 5.02 Tertiary enrollment (hard data) Gross tertiary education enrollment rate |
  44. (2007). 5.03 Quality of the educational system The educational system in your country (1 = does not meet the needs of a competitive economy, 7 = meets the needs of a competitive economy) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  45. (2007). 5.04 Quality of math and science education Math and science education in your country’s schools (1 = lag far behind most other countries, 7 = are among the best in the world) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  46. (2007). 5.05 Quality of management schools Management or business schools in your country are (1 = limited or of poor quality, 7 = among the best in the world) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  47. (2007). 5.06 Internet access in schools Internet access in schools is (1 = very limited, 7 = extensive—most children have frequent access) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  48. (2006). 5th pillar: Higher education and training 5.01 Secondary enrollment (hard data) Gross secondary education enrollment rate |
  49. (2007). 6.02 Extent of market dominance Corporate activity in your country is (1 = dominated by a few business groups, 7 = spread among many firms) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  50. (2007). 6.03 Effectiveness of anti-monopoly policy Anti-monopoly policy in your country is (1 = lax and not effective at promoting competition, 7 = effective and promotes competition) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  51. (2007). 6.04 Extent and effect of taxation The level of taxes in your country (1 = significantly limits the incentives to work or invest, 7 = has little impact on the incentives to work or invest) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  52. (2007). 6.06 Number of procedures required to start a business (hard data) Number of procedures required to start a business |
  53. (2007). 6.07 Time required to start a business (hard data) Number of days required to start a business |
  54. (2007). 6.08 Agricultural policy costs Agricultural policy in your country (1 = is excessively burdensome for the economy, 7 = balances the interests of taxpayers, consumers, and producers) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  55. (2007). 6.10 Trade-weighted tariff rate (hard data) The average rate of duty per imported value unit |
  56. (2007). 6.11 Prevalence of foreign ownership Foreign ownership of companies in your country is (1 = rare and limited, 7 = prevalent and encouraged) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  57. (2007). 6.12 Business impact of rules on FDI In your country, rules governing foreign direct investment (1 = discourage foreign direct investment, 7 = encourage foreign direct investment) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  58. (2007). 6.14 Degree of customer orientation Customer orientation: Firms in your country (1 = generally treat their customers badly, 7 = are highly responsive to customers and customer retention) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  59. (2007). 6.15 Buyer sophistication Buyers in your country make purchasing decisions (1 = based solely on the lowest price, 7 = based on a sophisticated analysis of performance attributes) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  60. (2007). 6th pillar: Goods market efficiency 6.01 Intensity of local competition Competition in the local market is (1 = limited in most industries, 7 = intense in most industries) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  61. (2007). 7.02 Flexibility of wage determination In your country, wages are (1 = set by a centralized bargaining process, 7 = up to each individual company) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  62. (2007). 7.03 Non-wage labor costs (hard data) This variable estimates social security payments and payroll taxes associated with hiring an employee in fiscal year 2006, expressed as a percentage of the worker’s salary |
  63. (2007). 7.04 Rigidity of employment (hard data) Rigidity of Employment Index on a 0–100 (worst) scale |
  64. (2007). 7.05 Hiring and firing practices The hiring and firing of workers is (1 = impeded by regulations, 7 = flexibly determined by employers) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  65. (2007). 7.06 Firing costs (hard data) Firing costs (in weeks of wages) |
  66. (2006). 7.10 Female participation in labor force (hard data) Female-male participation ratio in the labor force |
  67. (2007). 7th pillar: Labor market efficiency 7.01 Cooperation in labor-employer relations Labor-employer relations in your country are (1 = generally confrontational, 7 = generally cooperative) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  68. (2007). 8.02 Financing through local equity market Raising money by issuing shares on the stock market in your country is (1 = impossible, 7 = very easy) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  69. (2007). 8.03 Ease of access to loans How easy is it to obtain a bank loan in your country with only a good business plan and no collateral? (1 = impossible, 7 = very easy) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  70. (2007). 8.04 Venture capital availability In your country, how easy is it for entrepreneurs with innovative but risky projects to find venture capital? (1 = impossible, 7 = very easy) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  71. (2007). 8.05 Restriction on capital flows The inflow and outflow of capital into and from your country is (1 = highly restricted by law, 7 = not restricted by law) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  72. (2007). 8.07 Soundness of banks Banks in your country are (1 = insolvent and may require a government bailout, 7 = generally healthy with sound balance sheets) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  73. (2007). 8.09 Legal rights index (hard data) Strength of legal rights index on a 0–10 (best) scale |
  74. (2007). 9.02 Firm-level technology absorption Companies in your country are (1 = not able to absorb new technology, 7 = aggressive in absorbing new technology) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  75. (2007). 9.03 Laws relating to ICT Laws relating to the use of information technology (electronic commerce, digital signatures, consumer protection) are (1 = nonexistent, 7 = well developed and enforced) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  76. (2006). 9.05 Mobile telephone subscribers (hard data) Mobile telephone subscribers per 100 population |
  77. (2006). 9.06 Internet users (hard data) Internet users per 100 population |
  78. (2007). 9th pillar: Technological readiness 9.01 Availability of latest technologies In your country, the latest technologies are (1 = not widely available or used, 7 = widely available and used) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
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  81. An Assessment of the Investment Climate in Namibia.
  82. and associates.1988. Oil Windfalls: Blessing or Curse?
  83. (2007). and productivity In your country, pay is (1 = not related to worker productivity, 7 = strongly related to worker productivity) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  84. AND SOURCES This section provides detailed information, including computation methods and sources, for all the indicators that enter the Global Competitiveness Index 2008–2009 (GCI). Two types of data are used in the GCI: survey data and hard data.
  85. (2007). and technology transfer Foreign direct investment in your country (1 = brings little new technology, 7 = is an important source of new technology) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  86. (2008). Are Diamonds Forever? Using the Permanent Income Hypothesis to Analyze Botswana’s
  87. (2007). Article IV Consultation.
  88. (1982). Booming Sector and DeIndustrialization in a
  89. (1997). Botswana’s International Trade Policies.” In Aspects of the Botswana Economy Selected Papers,
  90. (1942). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy.
  91. (2007). Company spending on R&D Companies in your country (1 = do not spend money on research and development, 7 = spend heavily on research and development relative to international peers) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  92. (2006). computers (hard data) Personal computers per 100 population |
  93. (2008). Doing Business
  94. (2007). drain Your country’s talented people (1 = normally leave to pursue opportunities in other countries, 7 = almost always remain in the country) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  95. (1994). Estimates of FEERs.” In Estimating Equilibrium Exchange Rates,
  96. (1983). Estimating Equilibrium Exchange Rates.
  97. (1988). Exchange Rate Misalignment in Developing Countries.
  98. (2008). Extractive Industries and Africa’s Development: Lessons from Botswana.” Presentation to the AFDB’s
  99. (2007). Health and primary education 4.01 Business impact of malaria How serious do you consider the impact of malaria on your company in the next 5 years? (1 = extremely serious, 7 = not a problem) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  100. (2004). Higher or Basic Education? The Composition of Human
  101. (2008). How to Read the Competitiveness Profiles 1 For more information regarding the Executive Opinion Survey, see World Economic Forum.
  102. (2009). Impact of the Crisis on African Economies: Sustaining Growth and Poverty Reduction. Policy Briefs on the Financial Crisis,
  103. (2008). Industrial Policy: Don’t Ask Why, Ask How.” Middle East Development Journal. Special demo issue,
  104. (2005). Inflation Targeting Lite in Small Open Economies: The Case of Mauritius.” IMF Working Paper No. 05/172. Washington, DC: IMF. 159 1 . 6 : E n h a n c i n g C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s i n F o u r A f r i c a n
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  106. (1995). Institutions and Economic Performance: Cross Country Tests Using Alternative
  107. (2008). International Financial Statistics; Economist Intelligence Unit, CountryData Database
  108. (2006). Internet subscribers (hard data) Broadband internet subscribers per 100 population |
  109. (2000). Kupukile Mlambo Kupukile Mlambo is a Lead Economist in the Office of the Chief Economist of the African Development Bank. He joined the Bank in 1997 as a Principal Research Economist. In
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  111. (2008). Les performances de l’Afrique sont-elles les conséquences de sa géographie?”
  112. (2005). Les programmes de mise à niveau des entreprises:
  113. (2007). Macroeconomic performance and social development indicators,
  114. (1996). Making Sense of the Competitiveness Debate.”
  115. (2001). Mauritius: A Case Study.”
  116. (2006). Mauritius: Investment Climate Assessment. Africa Private Sector Group.
  117. (2008). MENA “Labor Demand, Skills Supply and Employment: Towards an Integrated Strategy for Job Creation” A Policy Note.
  118. Michael Fuchs has worked since 2002 on financial sector development in a number of African countries, including Malawi,
  119. (2007). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Algeria Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation (%)
  120. (2006). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Angola Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  121. (2004). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Benin Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  122. MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Botswana Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  123. MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Burkina Faso Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  124. (2006). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Burundi Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  125. (2006). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Cameroon Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation (%)
  126. MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Cape Verde Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation (%)
  127. (2009). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Congo Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  128. MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Côte d’Ivoire Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  129. (2006). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Ethiopia Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  130. (2009). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Gabon Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  131. (2007). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Ghana Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  132. MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Guinea Bissau Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  133. MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Guinea Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  134. (2007). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Kenya Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  135. (2009). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Lesotho Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  136. MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Liberia Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  137. (2009). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Madagascar Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation (%)
  138. MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Malawi Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  139. (2007). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Mali Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  140. (2006). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Mauritania Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  141. (2009). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Mauritius Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  142. (2007). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Morocco Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation (%)
  143. (2007). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Mozambique Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  144. (2006). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Namibia Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  145. MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Niger Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation (%)
  146. (2007). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Nigeria Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  147. (2006). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Rwanda Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  148. (2007). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Senegal Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  149. MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Sierra Leone Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  150. MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY South Africa Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  151. (2006). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Swaziland Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  152. (2006). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Tanzania Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  153. MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Uganda Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  154. (2007). MICRO DIMENSION BUREAUCRACY Zambia Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  155. (2001). Monetary Fund).
  156. (2007). of customs procedures Customs procedures (formalities regulating the entry and exit of merchandise) in your country are (1 = extremely slow and cumbersome, 7 = rapid and efficient) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  157. (2007). of government regulation Complying with administrative requirements (permits, regulations, reporting) issued by the government in your country is (1 = burdensome, 7 = not burdensome) Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
  158. (2007). of investor protection (hard data) Strength of Investor Protection Index on a 0–10 (best) scale |
  159. (2006). PM Page 160Appendix B: Main exports and their respective share in total exports,
  160. (2008). Population figures come from the United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA)’s State of World Population
  161. (2009). presents details of the performance in the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) discussed in Chapter 1.1 for each of the 31 African countries covered by the Index. Page 1 Key indicators The first section presents a selection of key indicators.
  162. (2007). prevalence (hard data) HIV prevalence as a percentage of adults aged 15–49 years |
  163. (2006). Rapport annuel sur la Compétitivité
  164. (1998). Real Exchange Rate Policy and Non-Traditional Exports in Developing Countries.” Research for African Action No.
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  166. Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  167. (2005). Rethinking Exchange Rate Competitiveness.” The Global Competitiveness Report 2005–2006. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  168. (1999). Seretse Khama: 1921–80.”
  169. (2008). Source: Authors’ calculations; IMF, World Economic Outlook Database
  170. (2008). Source: The United States Patent and Trademark Office
  171. (2008). Source: The World Bank, Doing Business
  172. Source: The World Bank, Doing Business 2008. 171 ACR09.part2.A.r1 5/15/09 7:53 AM Page 171172 172 H o w t o R e a d t h e C o m p e t i t i v e n e s s P r o f i l e s
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  174. (2007). Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey
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  179. (2008). The Global Competitiveness Report 2008–2009. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
  180. (2008). The Key indicators Population (millions),
  181. (1965). The Logic of Collective Action Public Goods and the Theory of Groups.
  182. The numbering refers to the data tables section in The Global Competitiveness Report 2008–2009. Underneath is a description of the indicator or, in the case of Executive Opinion Survey data, the full question and the associated answers.
  183. (1964). The Purchasing-Power Parity Doctrine: a Reappraisal.”
  184. The Region Income Small Medium Large Exporter Nonexporter Domestic Foreign Senior management time spent in dealing with requirements of government regulation
  185. (1982). The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities. Yale University Press.
  186. (2009). The structure of GDP was obtained from the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)’s CountryData Database and the World Bank’s World Development Indicators Online Database (both accessed
  187. (2008). The World Bank, World Development Indicators 2008; national sources.
  188. (1964). Theoretical Notes on Trade Problems.”
  189. (2000). Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic’s Guide to the Cross-National Evidence.”
  190. (2008). Tunisia: Economic and Sector Study on the Competitiveness of the Tunisian Economy and the Banks Operations.
  191. (2008). update); national sources.
  192. (2007). valued at PPP (hard data) Gross domestic product valued at purchasing power parity in millions of international dollars |
  193. (2001). Who Can Explain the Mauritian Miracle: Meade, Romer, Sachs or Rodrick?”

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