Computer-owners combine complementary goods to a computer-system. They exchange data with others and between different applications. These interdependencies lead to three different network effects, which are explained in the framework of Hotelling models. In the framework of a one-dimensional Hotelling model it is shown that there is a trade-off between differentiation and network effect. This trade-off determines whether a market reaches standardization or not. A welfare analysis shows that the market does not always lead to the welfare maximizing level of standardization. In the framework of a twodimensional Hotelling model it is shown that the producers do have an incentive to make their components compatible. But from the consumers point of view this outcome is not preferable as vertical integrated vertical integrated producers offer lower prices.Software-Industrie,vertikale Integration,Netzwerkeffekt,Software-Industry,Vertical Integration,network effect
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