The Japanese government has advocated a wide range of policy measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, e.g. improvements of gas mileage, development of alternative fuel vehicles, shifts to walking, bicycles and public transportation for passenger transportation and to trains and ships for cargos, greening of highways. The details of these policies and their effectiveness are not clear, however. Furthermore, virtually no analysis has been provided on the costs and benefits of these policy measures. Unfortunately, the Japanese government has been slow to develop the data infrastructure needed for such an evaluation. This article reviews the studies conducted in the U.S. and Europe, and examines what sort of research is necessary in Japan.
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