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Downward nominal and real wage rigidity : survey evidence from European firms

By Jan Babecky, Philip Du Caju, Theodora Kosma, Martina Lawless, Julian Messina and Tairi Room

Abstract

It has been well established that the wages of individual workers react little, especially downwards, to shocks that hit their employer. This paper presents new evidence from a unique survey of firms across Europe on the prevalence of downward wage rigidity in both real and nominal terms. The authors analyse which firm-level and institutional factors are associated with wage rigidity. The results indicate that it is related to workforce composition at the establishment level in a manner that is consistent with related theoretical models (e.g. efficiency wage theory, insider-outsider theory). The analysis also finds that wage rigidity depends on the labour market institutional environment. Collective bargaining coverage is positively related with downward real wage rigidity, measured on the basis of wage indexation. Downward nominal wage rigidity is positively associated with the extent of permanent contracts and this effect is stronger in countries with stricter employment protection regulations.Labor Policies,Environmental Economics&Policies,Labor Markets,Income,Markets and Market Access

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