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The Equality of the Differences-Sen's Critique of Rawls' Theory of Justice and Its Implications for Welfare Economics-

By 玲子 後藤 and Reiko Gotoh

Abstract

センの「正義への状態比較アプローチ」には,一方で,「厚生主義」の語に集約される,従来の経済学モデルの方法的革新の契機が含まれ,他方で,ロールズの政治的リベラリズムにおける平等思想の射程を拡張するヒントが含まれている.本稿は,そこに含意された方法的・理論的含意を明らかにし,それをセンの社会的選択理論と「潜在能力アプローチ」と結びつけることにより,ロールズの正義論の再定式化を試みる.具体的には,ロールズが原初状態に課した認識的・情報的条件を満たしながら,不利性をもつ人々により多くの重みを与える非対称的な決定手続きの定式化の可能性を探る.これは,スミスのいう「不偏的観察者」に象徴された認識的・倫理的条件を共通了解としながら参加する意思決定プロセスに他ならない.以上を通じて,本稿は「差異の平等」に関するセンのアイディアを普遍的で一般的な平等思想に組込み,福祉国家制度を再構築する理論的道すじを提示する.This paper studies an alternative methodology in which injustice can be more central by examining the implication of Sen's criticism of Rawls' theory of justice in the context of welfare economics. We have seen that, first, taking a step forward from "justice as fairness" may not belie the background thoughts of Rawls theory on the equality of differences, second, Sen's criticism of "justice as fairness" is closely related to the methodology of the "new welfare economics". To replace the index of social primary goods by the index of capability changes the formulation of distribution rules as well as the formulations of social choice rules. These two issues are actually the two poles of the "new welfare economics". The underlying purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the reach and the possibilities of welfare economics today

Publisher: 'Commonwealth Forestry Association'
Year: 2014
DOI identifier: 10.15057/27350
OAI identifier: oai:hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp:10086/27350
Provided by: HERMES-IR
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