Location of Repository

The impact of competitive environment on the service marketing mix strategy of health organisations in developing countries : Jordanian private sector hospital senior managers perspective

By Ala'eddin Mohamad Khalaf. Ahmad


The environment of Jordanian private hospitals has never been so complex and challenging as\ud at present. There are huge influences on these hospitals in the current climate. Managers in\ud these hospitals are finding themselves, more than ever before, confronted by increasing\ud pressures and demands which they must seek to understand and respond to in their service\ud marketing mix strategy in order to achieve effective strategic marketing in terms of their\ud choice of service marketing mix strategy components (namely health service, pricing,\ud distribution, promotion, physical evidence, process, and personal strategies). This research,\ud therefore, investigates the influence competitive environment factors have on the service\ud marketing mix strategy components made by Jordanian private hospital managers, and on the\ud reality of the Jordanian private hospital marketing. The literature review reveals that there is\ud an extensive body of research that addresses service marketing mix strategy in general but\ud there is less emphasis on the health sector. Moreover, evidence of the impact of a competitive\ud environment on service marketing mix strategy and hospital performance measurements'\ud criteria in the hospital industry is limited. In order to explore this issue, a triangulation method\ud was used to collect primary data through a questionnaire, which was administered in the\ud private sector hospitals in the six Jordanian governorates and, via in-depth semi structured\ud interviews with hospital managers and experts in the health services in Jordan. All Jordanian\ud general private sector hospitals were targeted in this research rather than a representative\ud sample of these hospitals. A purposive sampling strategy was used to choose the participants\ud in this research. In total, -\ud 143 senior managers (general manager, administrative manager,\ud medical manager, public relation manager, marketing manager, and out patients clinic\ud manager) participated in this study.\ud \ud \ud The results confirm significant differences in the influence of competitive environment\ud factors on service marketing mix strategy components. They also reveal that the components\ud of the marketing mix strategy have varied significant and insignificant influence on the\ud hospital performance, which demonstrates that the hospital performance phenomenon is\ud complicated and multi-dimensional in nature. Furthermore, the results exhibit that hospital\ud managers might benefit more by placing more emphasis on an integrated service marketing\ud mix strategy and recognising the competitive environment influences on their hospitals. The\ud results also highlight several implications for future research in health services marketing and\ud fills in several gaps in the existing literature on health services marketing.\ud \ud \ud This research contributes to the academic and practical knowledge as being one of the first\ud attempts to investigate empirically the impact of the competitive environment on service\ud marketing mix strategy. As such, the influences of service marketing mix strategy on\ud hospitals' performance criteria, identifying the main concerns and problems which face the\ud management and marketing in Jordanian private sector hospitals, are explored in addition to\ud recognising the vital roles of marketing in improving the hospital performance. This research\ud integrates, refines and extends the empirical work conducted in the field of health services\ud marketing in developing countries. It raises many implications for managers in these\ud hospitals, such as considering the importance of influences by competitive environment on\ud marketing mix strategy and the vital role this strategy plays in the performance of Jordanian\ud private sector hospitals. This research provides useful guidelines for further and future\ud research possibilities such as exploring the influence of the competitive environment\ud factors influence on hospital performance criteria

Topics: R1, HJ
OAI identifier: oai:eprints.hud.ac.uk:4614

Suggested articles



  1. (1998). A blended strategy using competitive and regulatory models",
  2. (2000). A case for procedural justice climate: development and test of a multilevel model",
  3. (1993). A client-driven model for service pricing",
  4. (2000). A connectionist model of brand-quality associations",
  5. (1987). A consumer perspective on health care advertising",
  6. (2000). A contingent approach to the design of vendor selection systems for different types of co-operative customer/supplier relationships",
  7. (2000). A critical evaluation of the new services development process: integrating service innovation and service design",
  8. (1992). A cross-cultural analysis of the visual components of print advertising: the United States and the European Community",
  9. (1986). A financial model for assessing hospital performance: an application to multi institutional organizations",
  10. (1989). A gap analysis of professional service quality",
  11. (1996). A guide to DEAP Version 2.1: a data envelopment analysis (computer) program",
  12. (1997). A healthcare Baldrige? ",
  13. (1981). A marketing analysis of physician selection and patient satisfaction",
  14. (1988). A Methodology for measuring consumer preference in developing countries,
  15. (1997). A model of quality management in a general hospital",
  16. (2002). A multiple-indicator approach to municipal service evaluation: correlating performance measurement and citizen satisfaction across jurisdictions",
  17. (1996). A new generation of competitors", Management Decision.
  18. (2004). A new tool for measurement of processbased performance of multispecialty tertiary care hospitals",
  19. (1979). A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs",
  20. (1997). A portfolio approach to supplier relationships",
  21. (1996). A priority queuing model to reduce waiting times in emergency care",
  22. (2003). A proposed model of the descriptors of service process",
  23. (2001). A Qualitative Study of the Organisational Consequences of Telemedicine",
  24. (1984). A Service Quality Model and Its Marketing Implications",
  25. (1978). A Service-Orientated Approach to Marketing of Services",
  26. (1978). A Social Information Processing Approach to Job Attitudes and Task Design",
  27. (1995). A Stakeholder Framework for Analyzing and Evaluating Corporate Social Performance'
  28. (1978). A Strategic Model of the U. S. Brewing Industry: 1952-1971 ",
  29. (1990). A strategic pricing framework",
  30. (2000). A study of patients' expectations and satisfaction in Singapore hospitals",
  31. (1994). A Survey of Corporate Governance. "
  32. (1996). A theory of privatisation",
  33. (1994). A theory of quality management underlying the Deming management method",
  34. (1994). Achievements with quality improvement in the NHS",
  35. (2003). Achieving a customer orientation using "people-power, the "5th P
  36. (1998). Advertising and Promotion", in Ennew, Christine; Watkins, Trevor; and Wright, Mike (Eds), Marketing Financial Services, Second Edition, Butter worth-Heinemann.
  37. (1996). America's best hospitals",
  38. (1992). American Automotive Industry Action Group",
  39. (1993). An Analytical Approach to Marketing Decisions",
  40. (1987). An analytical review of hospital financial performance measures",
  41. (2000). An Empirical Analysis of Management Challenges in Service Factories, Service Shops, Mass Service and Professional Services",
  42. (2005). An empirical analysis of the brand personality effect,
  43. (2005). An empirical analysis of the brand personality effect",
  44. (1998). An empirical analysis of umbrella branding",
  45. (1990). An Empirical Test of the Extended Gaps Model of Service Quality", Marketing Science Institute, Working Paper No.
  46. (2003). An Introduction to Data Envelopment Analysis: A Tool for Performance Measurement", Sage Publications,
  47. (1988). An Investigation of the External Physician Search Process",
  48. (2006). An investigation of the generalizability of the Houghton and neck revised self-leadership questionnaire to a Chinese context",
  49. (1991). An Optimization Modeling System", 4th ed, Boyd &
  50. (1993). Analysis of print ad features: services versus products",
  51. (1999). Analysis of three decision-making methods: a breast cancer patient as a model",
  52. (1995). Analysis, Planning, Improvisation and Control in the development of New Services",
  53. (2000). Annual Report",
  54. (2005). Antecedents and outcomes of service recovery performance in a public health-care environment",
  55. (2005). Antecedents of managerial public relations: a structural model examination",
  56. (1983). Applied multiple regress ion/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences",
  57. (1999). Are rural hospitals `strategic'? ",
  58. (1988). Assessing Advantage: A Framework for Diagnosing Competitive Superiority",
  59. (2005). Assessing performance of multi-hospital organizations: a measurement approach",
  60. (2000). Assessment of strategic management practice in private nonprofit hospitals in Greater Beirut",
  61. (1991). Assessment of training needs within the context of administrative reform in Jordan",
  62. (1973). Atmospherics as a Marketing Tool",
  63. (1986). Bank Strategic Management and Marketing",
  64. (1977). Banks Sell Services-Not Things",
  65. (2001). Basic Marketing Research", Fourth Edition,
  66. (1964). Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach", Second Edition, Richard D.
  67. (1975). Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research",
  68. (1997). Benchmarking for Best Practices in the Public Sector: Achieving Performance Breakthroughs in Federal, State and Local Agencies, Jossey-Bass,
  69. (1995). Beyond patient satisfaction",
  70. (2003). Beyond reference price: understanding consumers' encounters with unexpected prices",
  71. (1989). Blueprinting for the Bottom Line" i Service Excellence: Marketing's Impact on Performance.
  72. (1981). Brand name selection for consumer products",
  73. (1977). Breaking Free From Product Marketing",
  74. (1996). Building Strong Brands",
  75. (1999). Buyer-seller customer satisfaction: the influence of the environment and customer service,
  76. (2000). Call Centres: How Can Service Quality Be Managed,
  77. (1981). Can Hospitals Survive"Hom&noo6, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin Goldsmith,
  78. (1996). Capture and Communicate Value in the Pricing of services",
  79. (1998). Cesarean section rates: effects of participation in a performance measurement project",
  80. (1986). Changing Patterns of International Competition. "
  81. (1972). Characteristics of Organizational Environments and Perceived Environmental Uncertainty",
  82. (1994). Characteristics of the Sales force in the US Healthcare Service Industry: A Comparative Study of Selling Professional Services",
  83. (1997). Choice of a personal physician and patient satisfaction in a health maintenance organization",
  84. (1991). Citizens and consumers: marketing and public sector management",
  85. (1974). Classification of Health Care Institution", American Hospital Association.
  86. (1983). Classifying Services to Gain Strategic Marketing Insights",
  87. (1988). Client choice of therapist: rationale and implications",
  88. (1998). Clinical governance and the drive for quality improvement in the new NHS in England",
  89. (2001). Clinical governance as a restructuring of quality assurance processes: shifting the focus from corporate to clinical action'.
  90. (2004). Clinical governance: a fresh look at its definition", Clinical Governance: An International Journal.
  91. (1987). Commentary on some studies of the quality of care", Health Care Financing Review - Annual Supplement,
  92. (2000). Communication flows during financial service innovation",
  93. (1982). Comparison of Perceived Hospital Affiliation and Selection Criteria by Primary Market Segments, "
  94. (1974). Comparisons of self and superior ratings of managerial performance",
  95. (2000). Competing effectively: environmental scanning, competitive strategy, organizational performance in small manufacturing firms",
  96. (1995). Competing on service: technology and teamwork in supplementary services",
  97. (1987). Competition and the cost of health care, 1972-1982",
  98. (1998). Competition as a means of procuring public services Lessons for the UK from the US experience,
  99. (1985). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance",
  100. (1996). Competitive environments, dynamic strategy development capabilities and business performance",
  101. (1980). Competitive Strategy".
  102. (1999). Competitors co-operating: Establishing a supply chain to manage genetically modified canola. " International Food and Agribusiness Management Review. Special
  103. (2003). Comprehensive Economic Development Report",
  104. (1993). Conceptualising, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity",
  105. (1994). Conceptualization and measurement of environment uncertainty: an assessment of the Miles and Snow perceived environmental uncertainty scale",
  106. (1988). Configurational and Coactivational Views of Organizational Structure"
  107. (2005). Consumer evaluations of sales promotion: the effect on brand choice",
  108. (2001). Consumer perceptions of service quality attributes at sporting events",
  109. (2001). Consumer self-monitoring, materialism and involvement in fashion clothing",
  110. (1999). Contemporary Marketing Research", Fourth Edition,
  111. (1989). Continuous improvement as an ideal in health care",
  112. (1999). Continuous Quality Improvement in Health Care,
  113. (1999). Cooperative ventures in a competitive environment: the influence of regulation on management decisions",
  114. (2003). Coping with hypercompetition in the financial services industry in Thailand: environmental scanning practices of leaders and followers"
  115. (1995). Corporate Governance: Some Theory and Implications ",
  116. (1999). Corporate Political Strategy Formulation: A Model of Approach, Participation, and Strategy Decisions',
  117. (1998). Corporate strategy and international environmental policy,
  118. (2000). Corporate strategy", 2nd ed. London: Financial Times/
  119. (1978). Cost accounting comes to service industries",
  120. (1976). Cost accounting proposal for an advertising agency",
  121. (1990). Cost to remain driving force of health care in the 1990s",
  122. (1999). Creating health and health promoting hospitals: a worthy challenge for the twentyfirst century", Leadership in Health Services,
  123. (1998). Creating Powerful Brands in Consumer, Service and Industrial Markets",
  124. (1991). Criteria for Scale Selection and Evaluation, in Measures of Personality and Social Psychology Attitudes",
  125. (2006). Critical tactics for implementing Porter's generic strategies"
  126. (1991). CSM: The Wave of the Future",
  127. (2000). Cultivating service brand equity",
  128. (2002). Curing and caring in surgical services: a relationship approach",
  129. (1994). Customer loyalty: toward an inte-grated conceptual framework,
  130. (1990). Customer Orientation of Bank Employees and Culture",
  131. (1990). Customer participation in service production and delivery",
  132. (1993). Customer Relationship Profitability in Retail Banking",
  133. (1995). Customer satisfaction and the internal market marketing our customers to our employees",
  134. (2006). Customer satisfaction",
  135. (1997). Customization or conformity? An institutional and network perspective on the content and consequences of TQM adoption",
  136. (2000). Data Envelopment Analysis: A Comprehensive Text with Models", Applications, References and DEA-Solver Software,
  137. (1994). Data Envelopment Analysis: Theory", Methodology and Applications,
  138. (1996). Data Warehousing: the Route to Mass Customisation",
  139. (1994). Defining Competitiveness A Holistic Approach",
  140. (2004). Definition and scope of health services administration" The journal of health administration education.
  141. (1992). Demography and design: predictors of the new product team performance",
  142. (1989). Deregulation and Distribution of Personal Financial Services in the UK",
  143. (1980). Designing a Long Range Marketing Strategy for Services",
  144. (1997). Designing and implementing new services: the challenge of integrating service",
  145. (1992). Designing and managing the customer-service function",
  146. (1984). Designing Service That Deliver",
  147. (1998). Determinants of customer satisfaction with hospitals: a managerial model",
  148. (1986). Determining organizational effectiveness: another look, and an agenda for research",
  149. (2005). Developing a marketing function in public healthcare systems: A framework for action", Health Policy,
  150. (1996). Developing global strategies for service businesses",
  151. (1998). Developing Marketing Strategy",
  152. (1981). Diagnosis-Related Groups Tool for Management, "
  153. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality",
  154. (1992). Does advertising affect your nurses? "
  155. (1996). Does continuity of care increase HMO patients' satisfaction with physician performance?
  156. (1997). Does implementing an effective TQM program actually improve operating performance? Empirical evidence from firms that have won quality awards",
  157. (1999). Does Relationship Marketing Pay? An Empirical Investigation of Relationship Marketing Practices in Hospitals",
  158. (2000). Does the distribution method for self-care materials affect patient satisfaction with physician communication? A comparison of mailed versus physician-delivered education".
  159. (1991). Dynamics of complaint management in the service organization",
  160. (2002). Edith Penrose's contribution to the resource-based view of strategic management, "
  161. (2001). Education for clinical governance",
  162. (2001). Educational Psychology from a Statistician's Perspective: A Review of the Powerand Goodness of Educational Psychology Research". Paper presented at the national meeting of theAmerican Education
  163. (2003). Effect of consumer characteristics on optimal reference price", Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, Volume 2,
  164. (1997). Effects of market position and competition on rural hospital closures",
  165. (1986). Efficiency Analysis for Exogenously Fixed Inputs and Outputs",
  166. (1996). Efficiency measurement and the operationalization of hospital production",
  167. (1994). Engineering customer experiences".
  168. (1999). England publishes first tables of hospital performance",
  169. (1994). Entropy, Quality and Wastivity: A Unified View of System Performance",
  170. (1993). Environmental Costs and Industry Competitiveness, "
  171. (1984). Environmental Management: Revising the Marketing Perspective",
  172. (2001). Environmental scanning as information seeking and organizational learning",
  173. (1997). Equivocal Information and Attribution: An Investigation of Patterns of Managerial Sense making",
  174. (1997). Essentials of Services Marketing",
  175. (1995). Estimating Zones of Tolerance in Perceived Service Quality, "
  176. (1996). European health ins. mkt. emerges. (health insurance market)(International life&health insurance report)", national underwriter life &health -financial services edition.
  177. (2004). Evaluating a health service taskforce", International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, Volume: 17 Issue: 5 Page: 248 - 257 Muthall
  178. (1990). Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses",
  179. (1982). Evaluating the administrative efficiency of vourts",
  180. (2003). Examining firm and environmental influences on export marketing mix strategy and export performance of Australian exporters",
  181. (1999). Excess capacity: markets, regulation, and values",
  182. (1995). Experience with Organisational and Financing Reform of the Health Sector", Division of Strengthing of Health Services: World Health Organisation.
  183. (1994). Exploiting globalization potential:
  184. (1995). Exploring output quality targets in the provision of perinatal care in England using data envelopment analysis",
  185. (1990). Exploring perceptions of hospital operations by a modified SERVQUAL approach",
  186. (1996). Export-led growth or growth-driven exports? The Canadian case. '
  187. (2001). Extending Choice for Patients",
  188. (2002). Extending choice in the NHS",
  189. (2005). Fathoming Porter's five forces model in the internet erä info
  190. (1995). Financing Health Care in China",
  191. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage",
  192. (1985). Focussing organizational research on regulation", i Noll (red): Regulatory Policy and the Social Sciences,
  193. (1987). From Competitive Advantage to Corporate Strategy", Harvard Business Review (May-June,
  194. (2001). From State to Market: A Survey of Empirical Studies on Privatization",
  195. (2000). From users to customers? "
  196. (1984). Gaussian demand and commodity bundling",
  197. (1986). Generic business strategies, organisational context and performance: an empirical investigation",
  198. (2001). Get connected, get results and get smarter",
  199. (1995). Getting better: health information provision in Guernsey",
  200. (2000). Global Strategy in the Internet Era":
  201. (1999). GPs' perceptions of patient influence on prescribing",
  202. (2001). Greek Hospitals: How Well Their Resources Are Used",
  203. (1992). Group decision support with the analytic hierarchy process",
  204. (1991). Guide to the Health Care Field",
  205. (1981). Guidelines for the advertising of services",
  206. (2000). Harder to borrow",
  207. (1989). Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan: Quality, Organisation, and Finance Issues in the Health Sector",
  208. (1957). he measurement of productive efficiency",
  209. (2005). Health care cost containment strategies: the Jordanian experience",
  210. (1988). Health Care Economics",
  211. (1994). Health Care Management: Organization Design and Behavior",
  212. (1989). Health Care Quality: The New Marketing Challenge",
  213. (2004). Health care system in transition: Hungary", WHO Regional Office for Europe on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies,
  214. (1997). Health Legislation",
  215. (1998). Health plan accountability and reporting. Issues and challenges",
  216. (1994). Health reform speed shift to tax-exempt integrated managed care plans",
  217. (1992). Health Service Quality: An Introduction to Quality Methods for Health Services",
  218. (1996). Health-care reforms in the Czech Republic",
  219. (1986). Hospital Advertising Invisible to Consumers", Hospitals,
  220. (1994). Hospital Advertising the Influence of Perceptual and Demographic Factors on Consumer Dispositions",
  221. (1988). Hospital behavior under competition and cost containment policies -the California experience,
  222. (1984). Hospital efficiency measurement and evaluation: empirical test of a new technique",
  223. (2004). Hospital service quality: a managerial challenge",
  224. (1982). Hospital shopping and consumer choice",
  225. (1989). Hospital-Supplier Partnership",
  226. (1995). Hospitals have PR field day as `honor roll' is published",
  227. (1988). Hospitals use TV and video marketing to entertain, inform, and advertise",
  228. (1995). Hospitals' advertising up 11.4 percent",
  229. (2004). How "placed trust" works in a service encounter",
  230. (1992). How brand image drives brand equity",
  231. (1989). How Consumers View Dental Advertising",
  232. (1988). How firms compete: a new classification of generic strategies",
  233. (1982). How to design a service",
  234. (1994). Hyper-competition: Managing the Dynamics of Strategic Maneuvering",
  235. (1996). Hypercompetition in a multimarket environment: The role of strategic similarity and multimarket contact in competitive de-escalation".
  236. (1984). Identifying and using critical success factors",
  237. (2006). Impact of economic incentives on quality of professional life and on enduser satisfaction in primary care", Health Policy, In Press,
  238. (1990). Implanting Strategic Management", Second Edition.
  239. (2004). Improving envelopment in data envelopment analysis",
  240. (2005). Improving the pharmaceutical supply chain Assessing the reality of equality through e-commerce application in hospital pharmacy",
  241. (1999). Improving the quality of institutional care of urinary incontinence among the elderly: a challenge for governmental regulation",
  242. (1997). In search of America's best hospitals - the promise and reality of quality assessment",
  243. (1993). In search of ethical profits: Insights from strategic management".
  244. (1982). In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies", Harper and Row,
  245. (2001). Incorporating patients' assessments of satisfaction and quality: an integrative model of patients', evaluations of their care,
  246. (1995). Index of Hospital Quality",
  247. (1990). Industrial Market Structure and Economic Performance", 3rd edn. Houg ton Miff an Company,
  248. (1979). Industrial Marketing Strategy",
  249. (1993). Industry country effects of managers, perceptions of environmental uncertainty",
  250. (2006). Initial Public Offering Investor Valuations: An Examination of Top Management Team Prestige and Environmental Uncertainty"
  251. (1991). Institutional Ownership, Capital Structure, and Firm Performance",
  252. (1998). Insurance Marketing",
  253. (2002). Integrated approaches to health informatics research and development",
  254. (1993). Integrated Distribution Management",
  255. (2001). Integrated systems design for customer focused health care performance measurement: a strategic service unit approach",
  256. (2001). Integrative pricing via the pricing wheel",
  257. (1984). Internal' marketing information in manufacturing firms",
  258. (1999). International Marketing Research",
  259. (1991). Interpreting and responding to strategic issues: the impact of national culture",
  260. (2001). Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analysing Talk", Text and Interaction, Second Edition,
  261. (2001). Interrogating SERVQUAL: a critical assessment of service quality measurement in a high street retail bank",
  262. (1990). Introducing quality management in the NHS",
  263. (2002). Invented Competitors :a new competitor analysis methodology", strategy and leadership
  264. (1981). Is management really generic? ",
  265. (1991). Is the Purpose of the Organization to Create Satisfied Consumers?
  266. (1993). Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health-care Organizations (JCAHO)
  267. (1999). Jordan Economic and Social Development Project.
  268. (2000). Jordan National Health Accounts",
  269. (2002). Jordanian Government Reports", www. nis. og v. io Jordan National Information System,
  270. (1988). Juran on Planning for Quality,
  271. (2001). Jury still out on success of hospital systems",
  272. (2000). Keeping the faith: building investor confidence in the absence of profits",
  273. (2000). King Approves ECC'S Blueprint to Rejuvenate Private Medical Centre", Jordan Times.
  274. (2000). Knowledge exchange at GlaxoWellcome",
  275. (2000). Knowledge management in resource-based competitive environments: a roadmap for building learning organizations",
  276. (2000). Knowledge-intensive business services as co-producers of innovation",
  277. (1999). Kotler on Marketing: How to Create, Win and Dominate Markets",
  278. (1997). Leveraging customer competency in service firms",
  279. (1984). Linking objective and subjective measures of performance",
  280. (1995). Long-Term Manufacturer-Supplier Relationships: Do They Pay off for Supplier Firms? '",
  281. (1979). Look to Consumers to Increase Productivity. " Harvard Business Review(May-June):
  282. (2006). Lowering standards of clinical waste management: do the hazardous waste regulations conflict with the CDC's universal/standard precautions? '
  283. (1978). Mail and Telephone Survey: The Total Design Method"
  284. (1998). Maintaining professional identity: doctors' responses to complaints",
  285. (1994). Making Relationship Marketing Operational", International Journal of Service Industry Management, Dec Volume: 5 Issue: 5 Page: 5- 20 Gurnmesson, E,
  286. (1999). Making the difference: quality strategy in public sector",
  287. (2002). Management Research", Second Edition,
  288. (1984). Managerial Marketing for Industrial Firms",
  289. (1989). Managing brand equity",
  290. (1992). Managing competition in the health care industry",
  291. (1994). Managing Customer Relationships for Profit: The Dynamics of Relationship Quality",
  292. (1997). Managing Hospitals in Dynamic Environment",
  293. (1999). Managing hospitals in turbulent times: do organizational changes improve hospital survival? ",
  294. (2002). Managing Innovation and Change: A Critical Guide for Organizations",
  295. (1997). Managing perceptions of hospital quality",
  296. (1992). Managing price, gaining profit",
  297. (1984). Managing Public Relations",
  298. (1995). Managing Services Marketing: Texts and Readings",
  299. (2001). Managing the Care of Health and the Cure of Disease - Part I: Differentiation. "
  300. (2004). Managing the care of health and the cure of disease--Part I: Differentiation' Uncertainty in Health Care Environments.
  301. (2001). Managing waiting patients' perceptions: The role of process control,
  302. (1997). Market-Driven Health Care: Who Wins, Who Loses in the Transformation of America's Largest Service Industry",
  303. (2006). Marketing and consumerism A response to O'Shaughnessy and O'Shaughnessy'
  304. (1984). Marketing Essentials Englewood Cliffs,
  305. (1986). Marketing Financial Services", 2nd ed., The Institute of Bankers,
  306. (1987). Marketing for health care organisations",
  307. (1994). Marketing for Health-care Organizations: An Introduction to Network Management",
  308. (1982). Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations",
  309. (2002). Marketing issues for the hospital industry",
  310. (1997). Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control", Ninth Edition,
  311. (2000). Marketing Management: The Millennium Edition, Tenth Edition",
  312. (1999). Marketing Performance Assessment: An Exploratory Investigation into Current Practice and the Role of Firm Orientation, Marketing Science Institute,
  313. (1999). Marketing Performance Measures: History and Interrelationships".
  314. (2002). Marketing Plans: How to Prepare Them, How to Use Them",
  315. (2001). Marketing Research, Sixth Edition",
  316. (1999). Marketing Research: Methodological Foundation",
  317. (1982). Marketing services by managing the environment", The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,
  318. (2000). Marketing Strategy and Management", Third Edition,
  319. (1992). Marketing Strategy and Marketing Mix in Financial Services",
  320. (1994). Marketing strategy-performance relationship: an investigation of the empirical link in export market ventures",
  321. (1999). Marketing Strategy: An Assessment of the Field and Outlook",
  322. (1991). Marketing-Orientation Revisited: The Critical Role of the Part-Time Marketer",
  323. (1993). Marketing: A Global Perspective",
  324. (2001). Marketing: an Introduction",
  325. (1998). Marwick LLP and Northwestern University Institute for Health Services Research and Policy Studies,
  326. (1986). Measurement of business performance in strategy research: a comparison of approaches",
  327. (1996). Measuring clinical performance to provide information on quality improvement",
  328. (2000). Measuring customer capital",
  329. (1989). Measuring Customer Satisfaction'
  330. (1995). Measuring customer-based brand equity",
  331. (1994). Measuring hospital efficiency with frontier cost functions",
  332. (1990). Measuring productivity in services",
  333. (1999). Measuring service quality in hospitals: scale development and managerial applications",
  334. (1992). Measuring Service Quality: a Re-examination and Extension",
  335. (2003). Measuring the effect of environmental uncertainty on process activities, project team characteristics, and new product success'
  336. (1978). Measuring the efficiency of decision-making units",
  337. (2003). Measuring the quality of relationships in consumer services: an empirical study",
  338. (1992). Medical care", Health in the Later Years,
  339. (1993). Mnagement Development in Arab Countries: the challenges of the 1990s",
  340. (2001). Modified importance-performance analysis: an application to hospitals",
  341. (1997). Mortality rates as an indicator of hospital quality",
  342. (1985). Multiple Regression in Practice. Sage University Paper Serieson Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences", series no.
  343. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis",
  344. (1996). Municipal Benchmarks: Assessing Local Performance and Establishing Community Standards", Sage Publications,
  345. (1991). Myths of competitive reform",
  346. (2005). Natural monopoly privatisation under different regulatory regimes A comparison of New Zealand and Australian airports",
  347. (1990). New marketing litany: four Ps passe: C-words take over", Advertising age. 61 (41), October,
  348. (1991). New Marketing Mix Stresses Service",
  349. (1994). New York State's cardiac surgery reporting system: four years later",
  350. (1991). NHS Outpatient Services",
  351. (1998). Operations Management for Competitive Advantage",
  352. (1991). Organisational innovation: a meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators",
  353. (1983). Organizational effectiveness: one model or several? ", in
  354. (1978). Organizational Strategy, Structure and Process",
  355. (1984). Organizing the national account force", Marketing Science Institute,
  356. (1992). Outpatients and Their Doctors",
  357. (1999). Outsourcing to increase service capacity in a New Zealand hospital",
  358. (1987). Ownership and organizational performance. A comparison of technical efficiency across hospital types",
  359. (1990). Ownership patterns of US joint ventures abroad and the liberalization of foreign government regulations in the 1980s: evidence from the benchmark surveys",
  360. (2002). Ownership Structure, Firm Performance, and Corporate Governance: Evidence from Selected Arab Countries",
  361. (1985). Packaging the service provider",
  362. (2000). Partitioning input cost efficiency into its allocative and technical components: an empirical DEA application to hospitals",
  363. (2005). Patient assessment of surgeons' interpersonal skills",
  364. (2004). Patient focused healthcare: an important concept for provision and management of space and services to the healthcare sector",
  365. (1995). Patient loyalty to physicians",
  366. (2002). Patient Satisfaction Measurement: Current Issues and Implications",
  367. (2000). Patient satisfaction with medical encounters -a cross-cultural perspective",
  368. (1991). Patient Satisfaction with the Accessibility of a Group Practice",
  369. (1990). Perceiving and Interpreting Environmental Change: An Examination of College Administrators' Interpretation of Changing Demographics",
  370. (1998). Performance management using health outcomes: in search of instrumentality",
  371. (1998). Performance measurement: problems and solutions",
  372. (2003). Performance, risk and strategy in privatised, regulated industries The UK's experience",
  373. (1999). Performance: a multi-disciplinary and conceptual model",
  374. (1999). Personal address at the Special Conference on Relationship Marketing",
  375. (1985). Physicians Write Advertising Prescription",
  376. (2002). Plans for Major reforms to remedy Jordan's health sector", Jordan Times.
  377. (1994). Playing the rules",
  378. (1989). Population Dynamics in Loblolly Pine Stands: Changes in Skewness and Size Inequality Ecology,
  379. (1986). Porter's
  380. (1990). Predicting death from initial disease severity in very low birth-weight infants: a method for comparing the performance of neonatal units",
  381. (1996). Pricing a bundle of products or services: the case of nonprofits",
  382. (1983). Pricing decisions: how they are made and how they are influenced",
  383. (1991). Pricing dimensions in health-care service",
  384. (2005). Pricing objectives and pricing methods in the services sector",
  385. (1991). Pricing of services: an interdisciplinary review",
  386. (1992). Pricing opportunities and how to exploit them",
  387. (1995). Pricing Public Health Services: Lessons from a Social Experiment Gilligan
  388. (1994). Pricing: how not to succeed",
  389. (1991). Pricing: theory and evidence -a literature review", in
  390. (1996). Principles of Marketing",
  391. (1999). Principles of Service Marketing and Management", Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ,
  392. (1994). Principles of Services Marketing",
  393. (2001). Principles of Services Marketing", Third Edition,
  394. (1995). Priorities for research into public relations practice in the United Kingdom",
  395. (1997). Private hospital care for profit? A reappraisal",
  396. (2000). Privatization and efficiency: differentiating ownership effects from
  397. (1988). Privatization: An Economic Analysis",
  398. (1985). Problems and strategies in services marketing",
  399. (1997). Process-based measures of quality: the need for detailed clinical data in large healthcare databases",
  400. (1993). Production frontiers and productive efficiency", in
  401. (2001). Productivity and price performance in the privatised water and sewerage companies of England and Wales",
  402. (1994). Productivity developments in Swedish hospitals: a Malmquist output index approach",
  403. (1998). Productivity in Public and Non-profit Organizations: Strategies and Techniques", Sage Publications,
  404. (1995). Productivity measurement in service operations: a case study from the healthcare environment",
  405. (1985). Professional advertising: how professional is it? ",
  406. (2003). Professional self-regulation in the context of clinical governance",
  407. (1989). Professional service pricing: an extended cost-oriented approach",
  408. (2000). Project team communication in financial service innovation",
  409. (1999). Promotion and advertising
  410. (1993). Promotion Management and Marketing Communications",
  411. (1978). Psychometric theory", 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill,
  412. (2000). Public Versus Private Ownership: The Current State of the Debate", The World Bank,
  413. (2000). Purchasing and Supply Chain Management",
  414. (1997). Pure versus hybrid: performance implications of Porter's generic strategies",
  415. (1996). Quality assessment and improvement",
  416. (2004). Quality assurance for clinical research: challenges in implementing research governance in UK hospitals",
  417. (2005). Quality evaluation in health care services based on customer-provider relationships",
  418. (1986). Quality Oriented Services Marketing2,
  419. (2001). Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS release 10 for Windows: A Guide for Social Science", Routledge,
  420. (1992). Questionnaire Design, Interviewing and Attitude Measurement", New edition,
  421. (2000). Questionnaires and their Designs", The Marketing Review,
  422. (2005). Rapid assessment and initial patient treatment team -a way forward for emergency care'
  423. (1993). Ratings of hospitals is delayed in an effort for stronger data",
  424. (1994). Reassessment of Expectations As a Comparison Standard in Measuring Service Quality: Implications for Future Research",
  425. (1992). Regulatory reform and productivity growth in the UK's public utilities",
  426. (1990). Relationship Approach to Marketing in Service Context: The Marketing and Organisational Behaviour Interface",
  427. (1998). Relationship Management in Public Relations: Dimensions of an Organization-Public Relationship",
  428. (1999). Relationship marketing myopia", Marketing Business,
  429. (1991). Relationship Marketing. Bringing Quality, Customer Service and Marketing Together",
  430. (1999). Relationship Marketing. Strategy and Implementation",
  431. (1994). Reports on Jordan Health Insurance System". Washington D. C World Bank, Jordan ministry of health.
  432. (1996). Reputation: Realizing Value from the Corporate Image",
  433. (2003). Research Design -Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods and Approaches", Second Edition, Thousand Oaks, Calif, Sage Publication.
  434. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches",
  435. (1978). Research for Marketing Decisions", 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs,
  436. (2000). Research Methods for Business Students",
  437. (2000). Research Methods for Business", Third Edition,
  438. (1980). Roadblocks to Hospital Marketing, "
  439. (2000). Role of private sector in United Kingdom healthcare system Commentary: Cooperation should be based on what the public wants and needs from its healthcare system",
  440. (1988). Sales: Why it Should be Everyone's Business",
  441. (2001). Satisfaction, repurchase intent, and repurchase behaviour: investigating the moderating effect of customer characteristics",
  442. (2004). Scanning actions and environmental dynamism Gathering information for strategic decision making",
  443. (1989). Segmenting Hospitals for Improved Management Strategy",
  444. (1982). Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior: A Critical Review",
  445. (1990). Service Management and Marketing: Managing the Moments of Truth in Service Competition",
  446. (2000). Service Management and Marketing. A Customer Relationship Management Approach",
  447. (1990). Service Management and Marketing",
  448. (1989). Service Marketing: Image, Branding, and Competition",
  449. (1987). Service Positioning through Structural Change",
  450. (1989). Service Pricing: a Differentiation Premium Approach",
  451. (1997). Service pricing: a multi-step synthetic approach",
  452. (1995). Service quality in hospital care: the development of an in-patient questionnaire",
  453. (2000). Service Quality, Profitability, and the Economic Worth of Customers: What We Know and What We Need t Learn",
  454. (1982). Service quality: a study of quality dimensions", Service Management Institute, Helsinki., working paper,
  455. (1999). Service typologies: a state-of-the-art survey",
  456. (1980). Services Marketing is Different",
  457. (1999). Services Marketing Management: An International Perspective",
  458. (2001). Services Marketing People, Technology, Strategy", Fourth Edition,
  459. (1996). Services Marketing: A European Perspective", Third Edition,
  460. (2000). Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus Across the Firm", Second Edition,
  461. (1996). Services Marketing",
  462. (1996). Services Marketing", McGraw-Hill Companies,
  463. (1992). Servicescapes: The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customers and Employees",
  464. (1984). Serving the Health Care Industry, "
  465. (1988). SERVQUAL: A Multi-item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perception of Service Quality",
  466. (1981). Shostack,
  467. (1998). Simulating Weights Restrictions in Data Envelopment Analysis by Means of Unobserved DMUs",
  468. (1996). Slack and performance in health care delivery",
  469. (1989). Smart consumers present a marketing challenge",
  470. (1994). Social Health Insurance, A Guidebook for Planning, International Labour Office", World Health Organisation:
  471. (1982). Social Science Research Method. An African Handbook". London: Hodder and
  472. (2000). Source: Adapted from Brosk
  473. (1994). Sources and management of conflict: the case of Saudi-US joint ventures",
  474. (2000). Specificity of the pricing policy in service activities",
  475. (1997). Statistical Data on Patients",
  476. (1975). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, 2nd ed
  477. (1996). Steering not Rowing: Co-ordination and Control in the Management of Public Services in Britain and Germany",
  478. (1996). Strategic alliances and hospitals: a US perspective",
  479. (1998). Strategic Brand Management", Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
  480. (1985). Strategic Goals, Perceived Uncertainty, and Economic Performance in Volatile Environments'
  481. (1995). Strategic Healthcare Management - Applying the Lessons of Today's Top Management Experts to the Business of Managed Care",
  482. (1998). Strategic Manage-ment: An Integrated Approach",
  483. (2002). Strategic Management and Business Policy",
  484. (1995). Strategic Management and Business Policy", 5th ed, Addison-Wesley Longman,
  485. (2000). Strategic Management of Professional Service Firms",
  486. (1984). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach",
  487. (1984). Strategic Market Planning for Hospitals, "
  488. (1998). Strategic marketing and clinical management in health care: a possible way forward",
  489. (1991). Strategic Marketing for Nonprofi Organizations", Prentice-Hall,
  490. (1996). Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations",
  491. (1995). Strategic Marketing Management - Planning and Control, Analysis and Decision",
  492. (1997). Strategic pricing differentiation in services: a re-examination",
  493. (1998). Strategic supplier segmentation: the next `best practice' in supply chain management",
  494. (1991). Strategies for assessing and managing organizational stakeholders",
  495. (1995). Strategy and Environment as Determinants of Performance: Evidence for the Japanese Machine Tool Industry",
  496. (1984). Strategy for financial services: cashing in on competitive inertia",
  497. (1997). Subsidizing government hospital services Who benefits most in Thailand? "
  498. (1990). Success factors of high-tech SBUs",
  499. (1992). Successful change programs begin with results",
  500. (2001). Super-efficiency and DEA sensitivity analysis",
  501. (2004). Supplier segmentation in the automotive industry: A dyadic approach of a managerial model"
  502. (1971). Survey Methods in Social Investigation", Second Edition,
  503. (1999). Sustainable competitive advantage: towards a dynamic resourcebased strategy",
  504. (2000). Sustainable service strategies: lessons from health care", - in
  505. (1994). Tackling wastage and inefficiency in the health sector",
  506. (1997). Taking the Fear out of Data Analysis",
  507. (2001). Teaching Methods and Assessment Techniques for the Undergraduate Introductory Finance Course: A National Survey, "
  508. (1991). Technology, design and service quality",
  509. (2005). Telehealth adoption in hospitals: an organisational perspective",
  510. (2003). TeleHealth paradigm for Kuwait's healthcare",
  511. (1984). Telemarketing Hospital Services- Benefits, Pitfalls and the Ranning Process, "
  512. (2002). Telemedicine adoption by different groups of physicians",
  513. (2002). Telemedicine and its role in improving communication in healthcare",
  514. (1995). Telemedicine in healthcare in Kuwait",
  515. (2001). Telemedicine: A New Health-Care Delivery System",
  516. (1998). Teleradiology: experiences with magnetic resonance imaging using this new technology",
  517. (1980). The Analytic Hierarchy Process,
  518. (1990). The Annual Statistical Report, MOH publications",
  519. (1992). The balanced scorecard, measures that drive performance",
  520. (2005). The Bottom Line on Behavioral Health Care Costs", Health Section News, March, Society of Actuaries,
  521. (1999). The brand-personality scale",
  522. (1996). The Chambers Dictionary", Chambers Harrap,
  523. (1996). The Changing Health Care Marketplace: Private Ventures", Public Interests, Jossey-Bass Publishers,
  524. (1994). The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing",
  525. (2005). The communication network for America's health care billers,
  526. (2005). The Cost of Mental Health Parity", Health Section News, March, Society of Actuaries,
  527. (1983). The customer contact model for organization design",
  528. (1995). The determinants of service quality: satisfiers and dissatisfiers",
  529. (1997). The economic and social performance of nations: efficiency and returns to scale",
  530. (1997). The effect of chain membership on hospital costs",
  531. (1982). The effect of client choice of therapist on therapy outcome",
  532. (1990). The effect of market orientation on business profitability",
  533. (1996). The effect of the servicescape on customers' behavioral intentions in leisure service settings",
  534. (2004). The effectiveness of orthopaedic triage by extended scope physiotherapists",
  535. (2002). The Effects of a Change in Customer Disposition on the Zone of Tolerance: A Longitudinal Study"
  536. (2002). The effects of for-profit status and system membership on the financial performance of hospitals",
  537. (2000). The Environmental Influences on Marketing Strategy in Jordanian Health Sector", unpublished MSc theses Baghdad university,
  538. (1985). The evolution of the corporate social performance model",
  539. (1997). The five Vs -a buyer's perspective of the marketing mix",
  540. (1992). The generic strategy trap",
  541. (1997). The Handbook for Managing Change in Health Care",
  542. (1980). The Health Care Market: Can Hospitals Survive"?, "
  543. (1980). The historical development of the strategic management concept",
  544. (1990). The hospital marketing paradox",
  545. (1998). The impact of customer satisfaction and relationship quality on customer retention: A critical reassessment and model development",
  546. (1995). The impact of environmental turbulence on American hospital strategies'
  547. (1995). The impact of environmental turbulence on American hospital strategies",
  548. (1987). The impact of grand strategy and planning formality on financial performance",
  549. (2002). The impact of location on the use of information systems: Case study - health information kiosks",
  550. (2000). The impact of privatisation and regulation on the water and sewerage industry in England and Wales: a translog cost function model",
  551. (2000). The Internet: an underutilized tool in patient education.
  552. (1988). The key trends in health care",
  553. (1994). The Market and Health Sector Reform"
  554. (1983). The Marketing Imagination",
  555. (1989). The marketing mix: time for reconceptualization",
  556. (1983). The marketing of services: why and how is it different? ",
  557. (1984). The Marketing of Services",
  558. (1996). The Marketing Planning Workbook,
  559. (1989). The Marketing Plans: How to Prepare Them: How to Use Them", Second Edition,
  560. (1985). The Marketing Research Process", 2nd,
  561. (1995). The Marketing Research Process",, 4`h ed,
  562. (1992). The moderating role of brand familiarity in reference price perceptions",
  563. (1994). The Nature of Customer Relationship Profitability. Analysis of Relationships and Customer Bases in Retail Banking",
  564. (1987). The New Marketing -Developing Long -Term Interactive Relationships",
  565. (1988). The patient as partner: a competitive strategy in health care marketing",
  566. (1999). The potential for social mobilisation in Bangladesh: the organisation and functioning of two health insurance schemes",
  567. (1987). The Price Bundling of Services: A Normative Framework",
  568. (2001). The prices of mailing services evaluated by companies",
  569. (1985). The pricing decision: a service industry's experience",
  570. (1995). The pricing of bank payments services",
  571. (1998). The process of change related to health policy shift: reforming a health care system",
  572. (1985). The psychology of waiting lines",
  573. (1988). The quality of care - how can it be assessed?
  574. (2000). The quality of the surgical service process in a private hospital", in
  575. (1999). The relationship between environmental com-mitment and managerial perceptions of stakeholder importance",
  576. (1998). The relationship between public relations and marketing in excellent organizations: evidence from the IABC study",
  577. (1994). The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning",
  578. (2001). The role of complaint management in the service recovery process", The Joint commission journal on quality improvement.
  579. (2004). The Roles of Government in Improving Health Care Quality and Safety",
  580. (2004). The roles of government in improving health care quality and safety", The joint commission journal on quality and safety.
  581. (1997). The separateness-connectedness self-schema: Scale development and application to message construction",
  582. (1998). The Service Encounter,
  583. (1997). The Service Profit Chain: How Leading Companies Link Profit and Growth to Loyalty, Satisfaction, and Value",
  584. (1979). The Social Psychology of Organizing", (2nd Edition),
  585. (2005). The strategic value of customer profitability analysis",
  586. (1995). The Strategy and Tactics of Pricing", Prentice-Hall,
  587. (1983). The structure of service firms and their marketing policies",
  588. (1979). The Structure within Industries and Companies' Performance",
  589. (1998). The TQM paradox: relations among TQM practice, plant performance and customer satisfaction",
  590. (1994). Theories of the firm: Implications for strategy research",
  591. (1984). Toward a Model of Organizations as Interpretation Systems"
  592. (1991). Toward a resource-based theory of bargaining power in international joint ventures",
  593. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: defining the principle of who and what really count",
  594. (1997). Toward healthier hospitals",
  595. (1994). Towards the Dynamic Organization", Management Decision.
  596. (1993). Tracking the Evolution of the Services Marketing Literature",
  597. (1998). Tracks of change in hospitals: a study of quasi-market transformation",
  598. (1997). Training for Quality",
  599. (2004). Uncertainty in Health Care Environments: Myth or Reality? "
  600. (1999). Unions as justice promoting organizations: the interactive effect of ethnicity, gender, and perceived union effectiveness", Sex Roles:
  601. (1990). Unleashing the Power of Services Brand in the 1990s",
  602. (1990). Using a Patient Survey for Marketing a Professional Health Care Practice",
  603. (1996). Using admission characteristics to predict short-term mortality from myocardial infarction in elderly patients: results from Cooperative Cardiovascular Project",
  604. (2001). Using Multivariate Statistics",
  605. (2003). Using the analytic hierarchy process as a clinical engineering tool to facilitate an iterative, multidisciplinary, microeconomic health technology assessment",
  606. (2001). Value and value chains in healthcare: a quality management perspective",
  607. (1995). We buy health care to achieve health and any proposed change in the structure financing or work of health care should be tested against this purpose",
  608. (2002). Web accessibility and the law: recommendations for implementation",
  609. (1990). What's in a name: Reputation building and corporatestrategy".
  610. (1992). Who picks the hospital: practitioner or patient? ", Hosp Health Serv Adm.
  611. (2000). Word of mouth processes within a services purchase decision context",
  612. (1999). Word-of-mouth communication in the service marketplace",
  613. (2000). World Development Indicator". http: //www. worldbank. org World Bank.
  614. (2002). Yes, but how do we know if it's working? Evidence regarding impact on clinical practice of access for health service staff to bibliographic databases and full text electronic journals",

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.