Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

New perspectives on nutritional interventions to augment lipid utilisation during exercise

By Javier Gonzalez and Emma Stevenson

Abstract

The enhancement of fat oxidation during exercise is an aim for both recreational exercising individuals and endurance athletes. Nutritional status may explain a large part of the variation in maximal rates of fat oxidation during exercise. This review reveals novel insights into nutritional manipulation of substrate selection during exercise, explaining putative mechanisms of action and evaluating the current evidence. Lowering the glycaemic index of the pre-exercise meal can enhance lipid utilisation by up to 100 % through reduced insulin concentrations, although its application may be restricted to specific training sessions rather than competition. Chronic effects of dietary glycaemic index are less clear and warrant future study before firm recommendations can be made. A flurry of recent advances has overthrown the conventional view of l-carnitine supplementation, with skeletal muscle uptake possible under certain dietary conditions and providing a strategy to influence energy metabolism in an exercise intensity-dependent manner. Use of non-carbohydrate nutrients to stimulate muscle l-carnitine uptake may prove more beneficial for optimising lipid utilisation, but this requires more research. Studies investigating fish oil supplementation on fat oxidation during exercise are conflicting. In spite of some strong putative mechanisms, the only crossover trial showed no significant effect on lipid use during exercise. Ca may increase NEFA availability although it is not clear whether these effects occur. Ca and caffeine can increase NEFA availability under certain circumstances which could theoretically enhance fat oxidation, yet strong experimental evidence for this effect during exercise is lacking. Co-administration of nutrients to maximise their effectiveness needs further investigation

Topics: B400
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Year: 2012
OAI identifier: oai:nrl.northumbria.ac.uk:6546

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2004). 50 adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, metabolism and exercise. doi
  2. (2010). A low glycemic index diet combined with exercise reduces insulin resistance, postprandial hyperinsulinemia, and glucosedependent insulinotropic polypeptide responses in obese, prediabetic humans. doi
  3. (2011). Acute calcium ingestion attenuates exercise-induced disruption of calcium homeostasis. doi
  4. (2006). Acute effects of exercise timing and breakfast meal glycemic index on exerciseinduced fat oxidation. doi
  5. (2006). An acute increase in skeletal muscle carnitine content alters fuel metabolism in resting human skeletal muscle. doi
  6. (2011). Associations between dairy consumption and body weight: a review of the evidence and underlying mechanisms. doi
  7. (2009). Butyrate improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in mice. doi
  8. (2008). Caffeine and carbohydrate supplementation during exercise when in negative energy balance: effects on performance, metabolism, and salivary cortisol. doi
  9. (2001). Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance. doi
  10. (2001). Caffeine ingestion decreases glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemiceuglycemic clamp in sedentary humans. doi
  11. (2004). Caffeine ingestion does not impede the resynthesis of proglycogen and macroglycogen after prolonged exercise and carbohydrate supplementation in humans. doi
  12. (2001). Caffeine, coffee and ephedrine: impact on exercise performance and metabolism. doi
  13. (2002). Caffeineinduced impairment of insulin action but not insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle is reduced by exercise. doi
  14. (2008). Calcitriol and calcium regulate cytokine production and adipocyte-macrophage crosstalk. doi
  15. (1991). Carbohydrate feeding before exercise: effect of glycemic index. doi
  16. (2007). Carbohydrate ingestion augments L-carnitine retention in humans. doi
  17. (1998). Carbohydrate intake during prolonged cycling minimizes effect of glycemic index of preexercise meal.
  18. (2011). Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. doi
  19. (2004). Chronic supplementation with fish oil increases fat oxidation during exercise in young men.
  20. (2010). Combined effects of endurance training and dietary unsaturated fatty acids on physical performance, fat oxidation and insulin sensitivity. doi
  21. (2007). Combining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors.
  22. (1991). Comparative continuous-indirect-calorimetry study of two carbohydrates with different glycemic indices.
  23. (2006). Comparison of exogenous glucose, fructose and galactose oxidation during exercise using 13C-labelling. doi
  24. (2004). Concept of fat balance in human obesity revisited with particular reference to de novo lipogenesis. doi
  25. (1999). Coordinate induction of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and UCP-3 by dietary fish oil: a mechanism for decreased body fat deposition. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty doi
  26. (1991). Current issues in fructose metabolism. doi
  27. (1993). Cytosolic calcium and insulin resistance. doi
  28. (1977). Depletion and disruption of dietary fibre: effects on satiety, plasmaglucose, and serum-insulin. doi
  29. (2005). Determinants of fat oxidation during exercise in healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study. doi
  30. (2011). Diet induced thermogenesis, fat oxidation and food intake following sequential meals: influence of calcium and vitamin D. doi
  31. (2005). Dietary calcium intake and obesity. doi
  32. (2008). Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise? doi
  33. (2001). Effect of caffeine co-ingested with carbohydrate or fat on metabolism and performance in endurance-trained men. doi
  34. (1997). Effect of dietary fish oil on body fat mass and basal fat oxidation in healthy adults. doi
  35. (2000). Effect of diets high or low in unavailable and slowly digestible carbohydrates on the pattern of 24-h substrate oxidation and feelings of hunger in humans.
  36. (2005). Effect of low- and high-calcium dairy-based diets on macronutrient oxidation in humans. doi
  37. (2010). Effect of low- and high-glycemic-index meals on metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise.
  38. (2009). Effect of physical activity on calcium homeostasis and calciotropic hormones: a review. doi
  39. (2009). Effect of preexercise glycemic-index meal on running when CHO-electrolyte solution is consumed during exercise. doi
  40. (2008). Effect of preexercise meals with different glycemic indices and loads on metabolic responses and endurance running.
  41. (2008). Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake. doi
  42. (2005). Effects of acute versus chronic L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on metabolic responses to steady state exercise in males and females.
  43. (1996). Effects of fish oil on metabolic responses to oral fructose and glucose loads in healthy humans.
  44. (2005). Effects of four weeks L-carnitine L-tartrate ingestion on substrate utilization during prolonged exercise.
  45. (2006). Effects of GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based evening meals on glucose tolerance at a subsequent standardised breakfast. doi
  46. (2009). Effects of glycemic index meal and CHO-electrolyte drink on cytokine response and run performance in endurance athletes. doi
  47. (2004). Exercise plus n-3 fatty acids: additive effect on postprandial lipemia. doi
  48. (2006). Fat adaptation’ for athletic performance: the nail in the coffin? doi
  49. (2010). Fat as a fuel: emerging understanding of the adipose tissue-skeletal muscle axis. doi
  50. (2009). Fat oxidation during exercise and satiety during recovery are increased following a low-glycemic index breakfast in sedentary women. doi
  51. (2000). Fatty acids and insulin secretion. doi
  52. (2007). Fish oil supplementation does not alter energy efficiency in healthy males. doi
  53. (2003). Fish-oil supplementation reduces stimulation of plasma glucose fluxes during exercise in untrained males. doi
  54. (2004). Glucose appearance in the peripheral circulation and liver glucose output in men after a large 13C starch meal.
  55. (2006). Glycaemic index effects on fuel partitioning in humans. doi
  56. (2004). Glycemia and insulinemia in healthy subjects after lactose-equivalent meals of milk and other food proteins: the role of plasma amino acids and incretins.
  57. (1981). Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange.
  58. (2008). High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise when carbohydrate is coingested with caffeine. doi
  59. (2005). Improved recovery from prolonged exercise following the consumption of low glycemic index carbohydrate meals. doi
  60. (2004). Improvements in insulin resistance with aerobic exercise training: a lipocentric approach.
  61. (2006). Influence of high-carbohydrate mixed meals with different glycemic indexes on substrate utilization during subsequent exercise in women.
  62. (2008). Influence of the glycaemic index of an evening meal on substrate oxidation following breakfast and during exercise the next day in healthy women. doi
  63. (2005). Ingestion of a high-glycemic index meal increases muscle glycogen storage at rest but augments its utilization during subsequent exercise. doi
  64. (2006). Insulin stimulates L-carnitine accumulation in human skeletal muscle. doi
  65. (2011). Lactate and the GPR81 receptor in metabolic regulation: implications for adipose tissue function and fatty acid utilisation by muscle during exercise. doi
  66. (2009). Lactate inhibits lipolysis in fat cells through activation of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, doi
  67. (2009). Leucine modulation of mitochondrial mass and oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes. doi
  68. (1987). Malonyl-CoA binding site and the overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity reside on the opposite sides of the outer mitochondrial membrane. doi
  69. (2005). Measurement of substrate oxidation during exercise by means of gas exchange measurements. doi
  70. (1982). Metabolic and mechanical effects using L- and D-carnitine in working swine hearts.
  71. (1986). Metabolic effect of pre-cooked instant preparations of bean and potato in normal and in diabetic subjects.
  72. (2010). Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. doi
  73. (1995). Metabolic responses to starch in oat and wheat products. On the importance of food structure, incomplete gelatinization or presence of viscous dietary fibre.
  74. (2010). MKR mice have increased dynamic glucose disposal despite metabolic inflexibility, and hepatic and peripheral insulin insensitivity. doi
  75. (2010). New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre? doi
  76. (2007). New insights concerning the role of carnitine in the regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. doi
  77. (2010). Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves vascular function and reduces inflammation in obese adolescents. doi
  78. (2000). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene expression. doi
  79. (2001). Optimizing fat oxidation through exercise and diet. doi
  80. (2000). Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription: a mechanism to improve energy balance and insulin resistance. doi
  81. (2001). Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription: a molecular mechanism to improve the metabolic syndrome. doi
  82. (2000). Postexercise substrate utilization after a high glucose vs. high fructose meal during negative energy balance in the obese. doi
  83. (2010). Postprandial energy metabolism in the regulation of body weight: is there a mechanistic role for dietary calcium? Nutrients 2,586–598. doi
  84. (1998). Pre-exercise carbohydrate ingestion: effect of the glycemic index on endurance exercise performance. doi
  85. (1999). Pre-exercise carbohydrate meals: application of glycemic index. doi
  86. (1991). Propionate lowers blood glucose and alters lipid metabolism in healthy subjects.
  87. (2007). Raising plasma fatty acid concentration induces increased Nutritional modulation of exercise metabolism 347 B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f N u t r i t i o nbiogenesis of mitochondria in skeletal muscle. doi
  88. (2009). Randomized trial on the effects of a 7-d low-glycemic diet and exercise intervention on insulin resistance in older obese humans. doi
  89. (2009). Reduced carbohydrate availability does not modulate traininginduced heat shock protein adaptations but does upregulate oxidative enzyme activity in human skeletal muscle. doi
  90. (1988). Reduction of postprandial triglyceridemia in humans by dietary n-3 fatty acids.
  91. (2003). Relation between calcium intake and fat oxidation in adult humans. doi
  92. (1995). Relationship between fatty acid delivery and fatty acid oxidation during strenuous exercise.
  93. (2004). Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management.
  94. (2003). Role of dietary fat type in the development of adiposity from dietary obesity-susceptible Sprague–Dawley rats. doi
  95. (2009). Role of the AMP-activated protein kinase in regulating fatty acid metabolism during exercise. doi
  96. (2008). Second meal effects of dietary calcium and vitamin D. doi
  97. (2008). Skeletal muscle adaptation and performance responses to once a day versus twice every second day endurance training regimens. doi
  98. (1998). Strategies to enhance fat utilisation during exercise. doi
  99. (2006). The acute effects of dairy calcium intake on fat metabolism during exercise and endurance exercise performance. doi
  100. (2006). The acute effects of different sources of dietary calcium on postprandial energy metabolism. doi
  101. (1984). The effect of amylose content on insulin and glucose responses to ingested rice.
  102. (1989). The effect of dietary fish oil on muscle and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase. doi
  103. (2009). The effect of glycaemic index of high carbohydrate diets consumed over 5 days on exercise energy metabolism and running capacity in males. doi
  104. (1971). The effect of lactate in canine subcutaneous adipose tissue in situ. doi
  105. (2005). The effect of the glycemic index of an evening meal on the metabolic responses to a standard high glycemic index breakfast and subsequent exercise in men.
  106. (2011). The effects of catechin rich teas and caffeine on energy expenditure and fat oxidation: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev 12, e573–e581. Nutritional modulation of exercise metabolism 349 B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f N u t r i t i o n doi
  107. (2009). The effects of low- and high-glycemic index meals on time trial performance.
  108. (2009). The first step first bite program: guidance to increase physical activity and daily intake of low-glycemic index foods. doi
  109. (2003). The glucose-fatty acid cycle: a physiological perspective. doi
  110. (2005). The influence of the glycaemic index of breakfast and lunch on substrate utilisation during the postprandial periods and subsequent exercise. doi
  111. (2002). The metabolic response to ingested glycine.
  112. (1997). The mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase system. From concept to molecular analysis. doi
  113. (1996). Time of day influences relative glycaemic effect of foods. doi
  114. (2010). Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fatrich diet. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.