We review here the scale of neutral and adaptive genetic variation of mahogany\ud (Swietenia spp.), one of the most valuable tree species in the world, and relate\ud this information directly to provenance performance, and seed transfer and sourcing\ud recommendations. Further, we explore a series of scientific issues directly related to\ud critical day-to-day management of mahogany, giving guidelines to maximise genetic\ud diversity outcomes in natural, remnant, sustainably harvested, and/or restored forest\ud landscapes. The study concludes that conservation and sustainable management of\ud mahogany genetic resources cannot be simply defined in terms of one-size-fits-all solutions,\ud and requires local community involvement to prevent illegal logging and ensure\ud mutual benefit. Landscape level strategies for the effective management of mahogany\ud trees outside of forests urgently need to be developed, together with strategies to\ud promote the benefits of different agroforestry practices. There is also a requirement\ud for conservation planners to consider that trees found outside protected areas have a\ud role in the conservation. In wide-ranging species, promoting international collaboration\ud for collecting, characterising, and conserving genetic resources is vital as international\ud consensus is needed to streamline phytosanitary procedures, to facilitate the exchange\ud of forest reproductive material, and assist genetic resource conservation efforts
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