Life histories and production of the five common species of Tanypodinae (Pen/aneura monilis, Procladius simplicistilus. P. crassinervis, P. choreus and Psilotanypus rufovittatus) in the mud at Loch Leven were measured from March 1971 to March 1972. The methods used to identify each species of larva are described. All were univoltine except Pentaneura monilis which had two generations per year, but the seasonal patterns of the life cycles were different. The average density of third and fourth instar Tanypodinae was 3100/m2 and densities of individual species exceeded 2500/m2 for short periods in Procladius crassinervis and P. choreus. Net annual dry weight production by this subfamily\ud was 2·6 gJm2 (57 kJ/m2), with individual species ranging from 1.1 g/m2 (P. crassinervis) to 0.16 g/m2 (Pentaneura monilis). These results are discussed briefly and compared with production estimates for other zoobenthos
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